Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
C3b fragments
-if microbial cell surface are present with C3b fragment can bind directly to microbes.
-two other component proteins, factors B and D, combine w/ C3b to initiate the alternative pathway.
-it the initiates cleavinf C5 into C5a and C5b fragments.
inflammatory chemical and a potent chemotactic agent
-stimulatesneutrophils and monocytes to migrate to inflamed tissue.
-activates neutrophils by triggering oxidative activity and increase glucose uptake.
combine (C5b6789)
membrane attack
-disruptting the lipid bilayer
-Na+ and H20 into cell causeing it to rupture.
Phagocyosis (ROS)
inflamitory cell products are formed as a result of phagocyte oxidase enzyme system on the membrane of a lysosome
oxygen radicals:
superoxide (O2), hydrogen peroxide(H202, hydroxyl ions or radical(OH-), hypochlorite anion(ClO).
Oxidizing agents directly attack cell membrane and therby increase permeability.
Phagocytosis (NOS)
produce and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) produce free radicals that attack molecular bond.
interleukin 1 (IL-1)
promotes inflammatory responses and fever
Interleukin 6 (IL-6)
promote innate immunity and elimination of pathogens
Tumor necrosis factos (TNF-alpha)
kills tummors
promote inducible hematopoiesis
-present on the endothelium enhance the binding affinity of integrins so the neutrophil can attach firmly to the vessel wall.
-neutrophils are attracted to the inflamed tissue by a process called chemotaxis.
diapedesis or emigration
movement through blood vessels walls and migrating to the inflamed tissue is refered to as
biochemical mediators
attract neutrophils are
bacterial toxins, degenerative products of the inflamed tissue, the C5a fragments, and other substances.
powerful inflammatory chemical and apotent chemotactic agent.
-they stimulate neutrophils and monocytes to migrate to the inflamed tissue.
-activate neutrophils by triggering their oxidative activity and increasing their glucose uptake.
movement of cell toward a chemical gradient.
-C3a, C4a, C5a are chemoattractants for macro and neu
-IL-* is an attractant for human neu
-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha) and chemokines
-prostaglandins (PGs) and Leukotrienes (LTs)
Signs and symptoms of inflammation
pain,heat,redness, (rubor, erythema), swelling
Signs and symptoms of inflammation
pain stiffness (joints), tissue degradation, changes in function
inflamatory mediators
Prsotaglandins (PGs) and leokotriene (LTs)
-histamines (and other vasoactive amines and peptides)
-cytokines and chemokines
-acute phase reactants-Creactive protein (CRP, von Willebrands factor vWF), fibrinogen, serum, amyloid A)
vasoactive chemicals
histamines, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes
mast cells
release packets of histamine and other inflammatory chmicals
causes endothelial cells to begin contraction and rounding up, thus increasing permeability.
signs of acute inflamation are caused by
greater vol of blood increases amount of presure w/in th blood vessel (hydrostatic pressure). Increase in pressure and permeability pushes fluid out of the blood vessels and into surrounding tissue.
-more blood carried to injured area.
reduction in blood pressure
-brochial constriction and mucus production
adhesion molecule
Injured tissue triggers the expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of endothelial cells, and the adhesion molecules bind to the receptors of neutrophils.This receptors callege selections, help neutrophils stick and role along the capilary endothelial surface.
Natural killer cells
-granular, non-thymic, CD16+lymphocyte.
-not CTLs:do not express TCR/CD3 complex and are not MHC restricted (note: humans have a class of CD16+,CD3+ NKT cell)
-stimulated by alpha,beta-IFN, TNF-alpha, IL-12
have toll-receptor(TLR)that recognize certain protein peptides (such asl LPS-endotoxin, but not antigen specific)
-have receptor for antibodies (FcR), complement fragments (CR), adhesion molecules, and some cytokines (IL-2)
-no priming or memory (vs. CTLs)
-Direct killing of cancer cell, virus-infected cells, intracellular bac by perforin and granzymes.
-also can kill target antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)
T lymphocytes
T cell selection in thymus
I. Marker of T cell differentation (CD4, CD8)
a. in the thymus, DN to DP to SP (either CD4 or CD8)
b. identification by flow cytomery
II. positive and negative selection by apoptosis in thymus
a. consequences of failed positive and negative selection may result in immunodeficiencies or autoimmunity
b.gamma, eta T cell develop outside the thymus, usually in the GI mucosa, and this differentation occurs later than alps, beta, Tcells
c. gamma, alpha Tcells are prevalent in the fetus, but extremely rare in adults.