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58 Cards in this Set

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Innate
Not antigen-receptor specific
No memory
ie,
reticulo-endothothelial system
Inflammatory response involving macrophages, neutrophiles
Natural killer (NK) cell
Adaptive
Antigen and receptor specific
Clonal selection and activation of T cells and B cells
Demonstrate memory and tolerance
Primary lympoid organ
(formation and antigen-independent differentiation)
-fetal liver and yolk sac
Bone marrow
Thymus- T lymphocytes, after puberty, the thymus atropy
-produces interleukin-7
(IL-7), a cytokine that promates t-cell poliferation
Secondary lymphoid organ
(storage and antigen dependent differentiation)
-Once mature, lympocytes leave the primary organ and go:
Bone marrow –hematopoiesis or formation of blood cells (red marrow), B cells
Spleen-
Peripheral blood and lymphoid
peyer patches in the intestines
tonsil
spleen
-filter for blood
-surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue and filled with a meshwork of red pulp (macrophages) and localized masses of lymphocytes called white pulp.
Lymph nodes
-circulation by way of right lymphatic and thoracic duct
-projections of connective tissue called trabeculea devide the interior of the lymph mode into compartments.
-B cells-cortical follicles
-T cells-paracortex
-macrophages, B cells, and plasma cells (antibody secreating B cells)- medulla
lymphoid pathway
lymphocytes
myeloid pathway
made from a pluripotential then myeloid stem cell
-granulocytes (neutrophilie and eosinophil), monocytes(macrophages), platelets and red blood cells
-basophils are precursors of the mast cells located in tissue.
Lymphoid pathway
pluripotential cel to lymphoid stem cell:
-lymphocyte (T and B cell) and plasma cell)
leukocytes
-primary effector cell in the immune system
-formed from stem cells in the blood marrow
-B, T and NK cells
cytokines
Development of lymphiod and myeloid cells are influenced by hormonal signaling molecule
-produced in bone marrow
- they stimulate stem cell growth, poliferation, and differentiation into particular cell type.
neutrophils
circulating granulocytes that are also known as polymorphonulear leukocytes (polys or PMNs)
-60%-80% of the WBC count.
-they have two to five nuclear lobes and coarse, clumped chromatin
-arise from bone marrow stem cells.
least to most mature
neutrophil
myeloblast, promelocyte, band cell, and mature segmented neutrophiles.
-stored in bone marrow
-early responders to an acute bacterial infection and arise in large numbers verry quickly.
-phagocytes
-have recptors that bind to endothelial cells in areas of inflammation
L-selectins
are receptors allow neutrophils to stick and roll along the capillary surface.
Chemotactic factors
Neutrophiles are attracted to areas of inflamation and bacterial produces by chemotactic factors such as complement fragments and cytokines.
neutrophilia
-acute infection
-increase in the number of circulating neutropjils, occurs as bone marrow release stored neutrophils
"shift to the left normal"
bands (immature neutropiles)
lack of nuclear segmentation
chemical mediators
free radicals, defensins, and proteolytic enzyme such as elastase.
-damage tissue during inflamation response
Eosinophils
-circulating ganulocytes that have two nuclear lobes.
-1%-6% of WBC count
-mature in bone marrow
-arise from meloid stem cells
-increase w/ an allergic reaction and infecction by intestinal parasites.
-primary role is to kill parasitic helminths (worms)
chemical mediators
-lysosomal enzymes, peroxidase, prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
--inflammation
`
Helminths worms
-they produce specialized molecules such as major basic protiens and eocinophil cationic proteins.
-they recognized helminths that have be opsonized (coated) w/IgE antibody. They bind to the IgE and release their stored chemicals on the surface and kill.
Basophils and mast cells
-chacterized by granules.
-0%-2% WBC count
-basophils circulate in the vascular systme
-mast cells circulate in connective tissue, expecially around blood vessels and under mucosal surface.
-they have IgE receptors that allow them to bind and display IgE antibodies on their surface.
-antigen binding to the IgE antibodies, mast cells and basophils release granules (degranulate) containing proinflammatory chemicals.
chemical mediators
histamine, platelet-activating factor, and other vasoactive amines.
monocytes and macrophages
-from the bone marrow stem cell of the myeloid region.
-5% WBC count
-can phagocytis many organisms
Fc receptor
receptos help macrophages locate antigens that have been coated by antibodies.
-they bind to part of an antibody called the constant fragment or Fc.
Complement
-recptors for the complement component C3b.
-Complement, like antibodies,they can coat antigen and make it more recognizable to macrophages.
Oponization
coating of antigen by antibodies or by complement.
integrins receptors
bind to proteins in the extracellular matrix and help macrophages target to certain areas.
Selectins and integrins receptors
help macrophages stick to capillary walls, enter and move through tisssue.
macrophages cytokins
coordinate the activities of other cells
- IL-1,IL-6 IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha).
-promote inflamation
-activity of neutrophils and lymphocytes.
Macrophages proteins that break down tissue
(secreation)
collagenase, elastase, plasminogen activator
Macrophages stimulate growth of new granulation tissue
(secreation)
fibroblast growth factor, angiogenic factors.
Macrophages antigen presentation
-For T cells to recognize antigens, these antigens must be first be processed and presented on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell such as a dendritic cells, macrophages, or B cell.
- the engulf the antigen and display the antigen complex on its surface, where T lymphocytes can recognize and become activated.
Lymphocyte NK cell
-not dependent of thymus development
-innate immune cells b/c they can effectively kill tumor cells and virally infected cells w/out previous exposure.
-can respond to variety of antigens and therefore not specific for a particular antigen.
-they target virally infected cells and tumor cells
antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)
-recognize antibody-coated target cells w/ their Fc receptors.
MHC 1
they recognize ADCC b/c virally infected cells lack certain normal self proteins on their cell surface (major histocompatibility complex I or MHC 1, protein)
-normal MHC 1 are protected by NK cytotoxicity.
T helper
T cells that posses CD4 proteins.
-antigens presented on the surface of specialized antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells.
TH1 subset of helper cells
develops in response to
IL-12 from macrophages and, when activated, secretes cytokines that activate other T cells (IL-2) and macrophages (inferon gamma(IFN-gamma))
TH2 subset of helper cells
develop in response to IL-4 from activated T helper cells and secrete cytokines that stimulate B-cell proliferation and antibody production (eg., IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL13)
Cytotoxic T cell
presence of CD8 protein
-recognize antigen presented in association w/ surface proteins that are found on all nucleated cells of body (MHC 1).
-when CD8+ T cell recognizes a foreign antigen on the cell, the antigen-presenting cell is killed cytotoxic T cells
cytotoxic T cell is enhanced
by helper cell cytokines (IL-2)
B cells
-their ability to produce antibodies and by the presence of antibody like receptors (B-cell receptors(BCRs)) on their cell surface.
-B cells require "help" fromT helper to respond to protein antigen. B cells bind and internalize that protein antigen, then process and present it to T helper cell.
-Tcells that recognize the presented peptides bind to and are activated by B cell.
Cells of the reticulo-Endothelial system (RES)
-phagocytic
-brain glial, liver kupffer cells, aveolar macrophages, skin langerhans and dendritic cells, lymph node reticular cells, blood macrophages and neutrophils, splenic, macrophages
-ingestion of particular matter.
-particules may be coated (opsonized) by antibodies of C factors; phagocytotic cells have recptors for these opsonins that increase the efficiency of ingestion.
-protease enzymes in their phacocytic vacuoles.
-respiratory burst- increase O2 consumption and O2 production; reactive oxygen species (ROS)
-"sloopy eaters there is nonspecific tissue damage and inflammation when they are activated.
Complement cascade activated
C1 binds IgG antibody complex then C3 spontaneously degrades into active C3b fragments in plasma
Macrophages proteins that break down tissue
(secreation)
collagenase, elastase, plasminogen activator
Macrophages stimulate growth of new granulation tissue
(secreation)
fibroblast growth factor, angiogenic factors.
Macrophages antigen presentation
-For T cells to recognize antigens, these antigens must be first be processed and presented on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell such as a dendritic cells, macrophages, or B cell.
- the engulf the antigen and display the antigen complex on its surface, where T lymphocytes can recognize and become activated.
Lymphocyte NK cell
-not dependent of thymus development
-innate immune cells b/c they can effectively kill tumor cells and virally infected cells w/out previous exposure.
-can respond to variety of antigens and therefore not specific for a particular antigen.
-they target virally infected cells and tumor cells
antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)
-recognize antibody-coated target cells w/ their Fc receptors.
MHC 1
they recognize ADCC b/c virally infected cells lack certain normal self proteins on their cell surface (major histocompatibility complex I or MHC 1, protein)
-normal MHC 1 are protected by NK cytotoxicity.
T helper
T cells that posses CD4 proteins.
-antigens presented on the surface of specialized antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells.
TH1 subset of helper cells
develops in response to
IL-12 from macrophages and, when activated, secretes cytokines that activate other T cells (IL-2) and macrophages (inferon gamma(IFN-gamma))
TH2 subset of helper cells
develop in response to IL-4 from activated T helper cells and secrete cytokines that stimulate B-cell proliferation and antibody production (eg., IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL13)
Cytotoxic T cell
presence of CD8 protein
-recognize antigen presented in association w/ surface proteins that are found on all nucleated cells of body (MHC 1).
-when CD8+ T cell recognizes a foreign antigen on the cell, the antigen-presenting cell is killed cytotoxic T cells
cytotoxic T cell is enhanced
by helper cell cytokines (IL-2)
B cells
-their ability to produce antibodies and by the presence of antibody like receptors (B-cell receptors(BCRs)) on their cell surface.
-B cells require "help" fromT helper to respond to protein antigen. B cells bind and internalize that protein antigen, then process and present it to T helper cell.
-Tcells that recognize the presented peptides bind to and are activated by B cell.
Cells of the reticulo-Endothelial system (RES)
-phagocytic
-brain glial, liver kupffer cells, aveolar macrophages, skin langerhans and dendritic cells, lymph node reticular cells, blood macrophages and neutrophils, splenic, macrophages
-ingestion of particular matter.
-particules may be coated (opsonized) by antibodies of C factors; phagocytotic cells have recptors for these opsonins that increase the efficiency of ingestion.
-protease enzymes in their phacocytic vacuoles.
-respiratory burst- increase O2 consumption and O2 production; reactive oxygen species (ROS)
-"sloopy eaters there is nonspecific tissue damage and inflammation when they are activated.
Complement cascade activated
C1 binds IgG antibody complex then C3 spontaneously degrades into active C3b fragments in plasma