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25 Cards in this Set

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Bacteriocide – an agent that kills the bacteria
They affect the bacterial cells alls or permeability of cell membrane.

Bacteriostatic – a substance that inhibits growth and replication of bacteria.
What is the difference btwn bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal?
The ability of a microorganism previously sensitive to an antimicrobial agent to withstand the effects of that drug.
What is resistance?
1. antiinfectives given in less than adequate doses.
2. treatment quit too soon. Patient compliance often poor as they begin to feel better.
3. Antiinfective given unnecessarily
a. Treatment of untreatable infections.
b. Treating fever
c. Prophylaxis
What are the contributing factors of resistance?
Develop more rapid identification methods

Identify the organism

Determine susceptibility or resistance to an antimicrobial before use

Educate patients

Take medicine on time
Finish the entire regimen
Good care sometimes includes NOT giving an antimicrobial
What can be done to help avoid drug resistance?
1. Cell wall synthesis inhibitors
2. Protein synthesis inhibitors
3. DNA inhibitors
4. Protein synthesis inhibitors
5. Folic acid synthesis inhibitors
What are the Main mechanism of action for the antimicrobials?
1. Beta-lactams
2. Glycopeptides
What are the antimicrobial agents that are that have the mech of action of Cell wall synthesis inhibitors?
vancomycin, bacitracin
What are the Glycopeptides?
Aminoglycosides including streptomycin
What are the Protein synthesis inhibitors that are bacteriocidal?
1. Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones – synthetic, non-antibiotic agents
What are the DNA inhibitors?
(penicillin, cephalosporin, carbapenems, monobactams)
What are the 4 beta-lactams in the beta-lactam family?
1. Macrolides including eythromycins
2. Tetracyclines
3. Lincosamides
4. Chloramphenicol
What are the Protein synthesis inhibitors that are bacteriostatic?
1. Sulfonimides
2. Trimethoprim
What are the Folic acid synthesis inhibitors ?
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors
What is the mechanism of action for Penicillin?
Beginning Narrow spectrum, then became widened
What is the spectrum for penicillin?
Usually safe, may usually be given in high doses
Caution: renal disease, high doses may cause CNS stimulation and convulsion
Causes hypersensitivity (side effects)
What are safety issues with penicillin?
Penicillin
Effective again organism causing most common infections

Gram positive bacteria
beta-lactamase
a type of enzyme produced by some bacteria that is responsible for their resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics like penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. These antibiotics have a common element in their molecular structure: a four-atom ring known as a beta-lactam. The lactamase enzyme breaks that ring open, deactivating the molecule's antibacterial properties.

produced by gram-positive organisms are usually secreted.
a type of enzyme produced by some bacteria that is responsible for their resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics like penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. These antibiotics have a common element in their molecular structure: a four-atom ring known as a beta-lactam. The lactamase enzyme breaks that ring open, deactivating the molecule's antibacterial properties.

produced by gram-positive organisms are usually secreted.
What is beta-lactamase?
Used to rejuvenate penicillin against penicillinase
1. Clavulanic acid
2. Sulbactam
3. Tasobactam
What are the beta-lactamase inhibitors or penicillin rejuvenators?
Probenecid
inhibits renal tubular secretion of many agents including penicillins and cephalosporins and some quinolones.

keeps penicillin in body for longer periods of time.
Cephalosporins
very similar to penicillin

less active against most gram positive organisms so penicillin still first choice

For Klebsiella infections
For meningitis
cell wall synthesis inhibitors
What is the mech of action for Cephalosporins?
Advantages: resistance to penicillinase

Disadvantages:
a. probably allergic cross-sensitivity exists with penicillins
b. must be used with senitivity tests - only effective sometimes.
WHat are the advantages and disadvantages to using cephalosporins?
Carbapenems
cell wall synthesis inhibitors

has the broadest spectrums

resistant to penicillinase

has to be given parentarelly

effective against psuedomonas
Monobactams
cell wall synthesis inhibitors

more for gram negative bacterias

no cross-allergenicit to penicillins and cephalosporins (use if allergic to penicillin)