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32 Cards in this Set

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respiratory stimulants or analeptics
What are the drug groups called that stimulate ventilation?
respiratory stimulants
stimulate ventilation

also

airway management
support of ventilation
medulla oblongata
Where is the location of the respiratory center in the body?
1. Higher brain centers
2. Sensory stimuli
3. Humoral changes
What are the mechanisms that can modify the action of the medulla?
mechanisms that can modify the action of the medulla
1. Higher brain centers
2. Sensory stimuli
3. Humoral changes
Humoral changes
stimulated by decreased 02, increased CO2, or acidosis (decreased pH).

however, too much CO2 for too long decreases sensitivity to CO2
stimulates breathing
When there is too much CO2, does it stimulate or inhibit breathing?
inhibit breathing
When there is too little CO2, does it stimulate or inhibit breathing?
bronchioles
Which part of the respiratory system has NO cartilage rings which allow to bring more air into the lungs?
alveolar sacs
In the respiratory system, what are the terminal ends in the bronchioles called?
alveoli-capillary interface
Where 02 enters the blood and CO2 leaves the blood.
1. COPD or obstructive disorders (ie. asthma/bronchitis/emphysema)
2. Decreased breathing overall
3. Association of respiratory system with cardiovascular system
What happens when respiratory conditions have decreased 02 tension in blood?
COPD or obstructive disorders
asthma/bronchitis/emphysema

Airway obstruction

troubling exhaling used air so less room for fresh air
Decreased breathing overall
pneumonia, fibrosis, depressed respiratory center, polio, etc.

With trouble inhaling, patient does not ventilate well.
Association of respiratory system with cardiovascular system
Reason for lungs is to exchange gases btwn air and blood - both air and blood must be in all areas of the lung and with enough area of contact for efficient exchange.

decreased contact surface area

increased diffusion distance

lung has inconsistent aeration

lung has inconsistent circulation
emphysema

TB

cancer
What are some specific diseases that decrease contact surface area in lung?
heart failure
lung inflammation
fibrosis
What are some specific diseases that increased diffusion distance in lungs?
mucus plugs
aspiration
fluid compression
What are some specific diseases that the lung has inconsistent aeration?
pulmonary embolism
cardiac abnormalities
What are some specific diseases that the lung has inconsistent circulation?
Respiratory stimulants
Therapeutic uses of what drug group?

May counteract drug overdose, but not a specific antidote to sedatives or narcotics may actually potentiate some depressant effects.

May shorten recovery time from anesthesia; mechanical ventilation is better.

Apnea in premature infants or sometimes to shorten sleep apnea episodes.
Some act on medulla, others action unknown
What is the mechanism of action for respiratory stimulants?
mechanism of action for respiratory stimulants
What drug group?

Mechanism of action

Some act on medulla, others action unknown
airway remodeling
decribes the permanent, negative changes that can occur with chronic irritation of the bronchioles. They become permanently scarred and narrowed and unable to dilate effectively. Most notable changes include: increased collagen deposition and airway smooth muscle bulk, mast cell and goblet cell hyperplasia and epithelial cell hypertrophy.
airway remodeling
The danger of __________ ________ explain the need for BOTH bronchodilation and decreased inflammation for effective therapy.
Therapeutic uses

Bronchiodilators & antiinflammatory agents
1. Asthma and other types of COPD
2. Used any time brochial dilation is desirable

Therapeutic use, Side effects, or cautions?

What 2 drug types?
1. Asthma and other types of COPD
2. Used any time brochial dilation is desirable
What are the general therapeutic uses of Bronchiodilators & antiinflammatory agents?
1. Sympathomimetics (rescue)
2. Xanthines - aminophylline (theophylline)
3. Anticholinergic (ipratropium)(atrovent)
4. Asthma prophylactic - cromolyn - mast cell stabilizers
5. Leukotriene Receptor antagonists
6. Corticosteroids
What are the names of ALL of the drug groups that are bronchiodilators and antiinflammatory agents?
bronchiodilators and antiinflammatory agents
1. Sympathomimetics (rescue)
2. Xanthines - aminophylline (theophylline)
3. Anticholinergic (ipratropium)(atrovent)
4. Asthma prophylactic - cromolyn - mast cell stabilizers
5. Leukotriene Receptor antagonists
6. Corticosteroids
Sympathomimetics
rescue drugs

Older agents - are both B1 and B2 agonists: epinephrine, isoproterenol

Ephedrine should NOT longer be used (too MUCH cardiac and CNS stimulation)

Newer agents - B2 selective with less cardiac stimulation: albuterol
asthma or other cases of COPD
What are the Therapeutic uses for Sympathomimetics?
Sympathomimetics
Mech of action

B2 agonist - relaxes SM of bronchioles

Most products can be inhaled

Some may be injected

E can only be taken orally
ephedrine
What Sympathomimetic can only be taken orally?