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27 Cards in this Set

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agent which decreases excitability of tissue in CNS.

-produces sedation, hynopsis, general anesthesia, coma, death. ALl drugs in this category can act as sedatives, hypnotics, or general anesthetics depends on dose given.
What is the definition of a CNS depressant?
CNS depressant
agent which decreases excitability of tissue in CNS.

-produces sedation, hynopsis, general anesthesia, coma, death. ALl drugs in this category can act as sedatives, hypnotics, or general anesthetics depends on dose given.
Sedative
drug administered at a dose level to cause mild drowsiness or sedation or to reduce restlessness or anxiety.

-ideally, should not interfere with person's ability to function normally.
Hypnotics drugs which are administered at a dose level to induce sleep or allow an individual to stay asleep. Usually dosage range is 3-4 times that of a sedative.

p.s. by definition, a person can be aroused from a sleep.
Define hypnotics.
hypnotics
drugs which are administered at a dose level to induce sleep or allow an individual to stay asleep. Usually dosage range is 3-4 times that of a sedative.

p.s. by definition, a person can be aroused from a sleep.
General anesthetic
a drug given at a dose to depress the CNS to a degree that causes loss of conciousness (unarousable sleep), as well as analgesia.

-person unarousable
-abolishes perception of and reaction to pain
drug given at a dose to depress the CNS to a degree that causes loss of conciousness (unarousable sleep), as well as analgesia.
What is a general anesthetic?
General anesthetic

drug given at a dose to depress the CNS to a degree that causes loss of conciousness (unarousable sleep), as well as analgesia.


analgesic

drug that releives pain WITHOUT loss of conciousness
What is the difference btwn a general anesthetic and a analgesic?
barbiturates
non-barbiturates
What are the two classifications of sedative-hypnotics?
Barbiturates
about 15 kinds of commonly available in the US. (50 or so FDA approved)

Differ in:
a. speed with which effect occur
b. duration of action (absorbed in bloodstream at same rate, usually, but enter brain at different rates)
may
All barbiturates _____ be taken orally.
Non-barbiturates
often called minor traquilizers
Non-barbiturates
A CNS depressant that does not have barbiturate structure
Benzodiazepines

ethyl alcohol
What are some examples of non-barbiturates?
a. reduce anxiety
b. sedation (drowsiness)
c. hypnosis (sleep)_
d. general anesthesia
What are the usual therapeutic responses that follow the continuum chart when increasing the dose of a sedative-hypnotic?
barbiturates
mechanism of action

mechanism unclear

do depress all areas of brain

seem to inhibit reticular activating system (depress synapse activity in some way)

Probably enhance GABA receptor complex and enhance CI entrance to neurons and hyperpolarize cells.

activate P450 enzymes and so increase metabolism of many drugs.
benziodiazepines
bind to special receptor that decreases activity of the brain.

also increase activity of GABA(neurotransmitter with inhibitory effects)

activate P450 enzymes and so increase metabolism of many drugs.
alcohol
unsure of mechanism

seems to increase GABA activity with short term use.

However, long term use decreases GABA and decreases antianxiety effects.

increase dopamine release

activate P450 enzymes and so increase metabolism of many drugs.
generally depress
What is the overall mechanism of action for sedative-hypnotics?
situational anxiety
neurotic anxiety
What are the 2 types of anxiety that are relieved with sedative-hypnotics?
a. relieves anxiety
b. sleep disorders
c. anticonvulsant
What are the therapeutic uses for sedative hypnotics?
Epilepsy
_________ is a major reason to use barbiturates over benzodiazepines.
side effects or toxic effects for all sedative-hypnotics
a. drowsiness (if not primary use) - perhaps less likely with benzodiazepines.
b. impaired performance or decreased perception and judgement - includes pyschomotor activity. Often with long term use, changes in EEG pattern can be observed.

hangover effect - dizziness and fatigue, diarrhea and nausea (slightly less true of benzodiazepines because does not repress REM sleep).

d. hyperalgesia (only of barbiturates) - barbiturates increase sensitivity to pain.

e. overdose - depress respiration (main cause of overdose death)
drowsiness
judgement
dizziness
hyperalgesia
respiration
a. _________(if not primary use) - perhaps less likely with benzodiazepines.
b. impaired performance or decreased perception and _________- includes pyschomotor activity. Often with long term use, changes in EEG pattern can be observed.

hangover effect - _________ and fatigue, diarrhea and nausea (slightly less true of benzodiazepines because does not repress REM sleep).

d. ___________(only of barbiturates) - barbiturates increase sensitivity to pain. Benzodiazepines are less likely to be fatal in overdose, but only if no other depressant is involved (alcohol, barbiturates, ...)

e. overdose - depress __________ (main cause of overdose death.)
a. additive with others of sedative-hypnotic group

b. drug abuse and habituation. Addiction occurs with daily use for 2 months. All sedative - hypnotics are ADDICTIVE. Non-barbiturates have no advantages over barbiturates.

c. withdrawl state - most severe symptoms possible

mild - restless, insomnia
severe - anorexia, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, hallucinations, seizures, convulsions, death. (take off slowly)- symptoms can last up to 6 weeks or longer. (usually only 2 weeks.)
What are the cautions for sedative-hypnotics?
cautions for sedative-hypnotics
a. additive with others of sedative-hypnotic group

b. drug abuse and habituation. Addiction occurs with daily use for 2 months. All sedative - hypnotics are ADDICTIVE. Non-barbiturates have no advantages over barbiturates.

c. withdrawl state - most severe symptoms possible

mild - restless, insomnia
severe - anorexia, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, hallucinations, seizures, convulsions, death. (take off slowly)- symptoms can last up to 6 weeks or longer. (usually only 2 weeks.)

d. alcohol during pregnancy
additive
habituation
ADDICTIVE
advantages
restless
hallucinations
during
a. ________ with others of sedative-hypnotic group

b. drug abuse and ___________. Addiction occurs with daily use for 2 months. All sedative - hypnotics are _________. Non-barbiturates have no _________ over barbiturates.

c. withdrawl state - most severe symptoms possible

mild - ________, insomnia
severe - anorexia, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, ____________, seizures, convulsions, death. (take off slowly)- symptoms can last up to 6 weeks or longer. (usually only 2 weeks.)

d. alcohol ________ pregnancy