Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/18

Click to flip

18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bronchiorelaxation
What is the most important responses observed from xanthines?
inhibits breakdown of cAMP

increases CNS activity

dilates bronchioles
dilates pulmonary blood vessels, but constricts cerebral vessels.

note: activates P450 enzymes (in liver) so affects metabolism of many drugs.
What is the mechanism of action for Xanthines?
mechanism of action for Xanthines
inhibits breakdown of cAMP

increases CNS activity

dilates bronchioles
dilates pulmonary blood vessels, but constricts cerebral vessels.

note: activates P450 enzymes (in liver) so affects metabolism of many drugs.
Therapeutic uses for Xanthines
a. pain from headache (caffeine often over the counter) -- conflicting evidence over effectiveness. No activity alone, only as potentiator of other analgesics

b. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema(aminophylline)

c. counter drowsiness
a. pain from headache (caffeine often over the counter) -- conflicting evidence over effectiveness. No activity alone, only as potentiator of other analgesics

b. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema(aminophylline)

c. counter drowsiness
What are the Therapeutic uses for Xanthines?
side effects for xanthines
a. increased HR and cardiac arrhythmias
b. increased gastric secretions (caffeine worst culprit)
c. diuresis (not usually used as diuretic)
d. Excess CNS stimulation - convulsions, insomnia withdrawl may cause headache and irritability
a. increased HR and cardiac arrhythmias
b. increased gastric secretions (caffeine worst culprit)
c. diuresis (not usually used as diuretic)
d. Excess CNS stimulation - convulsions, insomnia withdrawl may cause headache and irritability
What are the side effects for xanthines?
Cautions for Xanthines
a. Cardiac arrythmias
b. Ulcers
c. Possible pregnancy
a. Cardiac arrythmias
b. Ulcers
c. Possible pregnancy
What are the Cautions for Xanthines?
Cocaine
found in cola leaves from peru

CNS stimulant

schedule II drug

similar to amphetamines

different b/c not approved by FDA, except as a local anesthetic. Used only in hospitals or clinics.
Cocaine
similar to amphetamines

different b/c not approved by FDA, except as a local anesthetic. Used only in hospitals or clinics.
intense
nosebleed
Cocaine like amphetamine, but more _______. If sniff cocaine, side effect may be a ________.
Local anesthetics
What is the use for cocaine or cocaine-like derivatives?
not
anesthetics
There are ____ general depressants as are the general __________.
Unknown, but seems to elevate threshold for excitment of neuron by decreasing permeability to all ions.
What is the mechanism of action for cocaine?
mechanism of action of cocaine
Unknown, but seems to elevate threshold for excitment of neuron by decreasing permeability to all ions.
side effects for cocaine
CNS - EARLY see signs of CNS stimulation (anxiety, restlessness, confusion, dizziness, tremors, convulsions); LATER may get depression, unconsciousness, and death.

cardiovascular - different from amphetamines b/c will see later depressant action directly on hear (bradycardia, hypotension, cardiac arrest)

EARLY - like amphetamines, may begin with central stimulation causing increased BP and HR.

LATER - But soon see depression probably due to direct action on heart.

Allergic reactions - not common but are possible
CNS - EARLY see signs of CNS stimulation (anxiety, restlessness, confusion, dizziness, tremors, convulsions); LATER may get depression, unconsciousness, and death.

cardiovascular - different from amphetamines b/c will see later depressant action directly on hear (bradycardia, hypotension, cardiac arrest)

EARLY - like amphetamines, may begin with central stimulation causing increased BP and HR.

LATER - But soon see depression probably due to direct action on heart.

Allergic reactions - not common but are possible
What are the side effects for cocaine?