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31 Cards in this Set

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CNS drug
A substance which exerts its effect by acting on brain or spinal cord.
A substance which exerts its effect by acting on brain or spinal cord.
Define CNS drug.
1. more drugs than any other group

2. Little known about mechanisms
Why are CNS drugs so difficult to study?
heroin, PCP, peyote, LSD
What are the Illicit substances (agents) of the CNS?
- not therapeutic

yes
Are illicit substances therapeutic? are they illegal?
Socially acceptable substances in our society
alcohol, tea, coffee, tobacco, marijuana

What are these?
alcohol, tea, coffee, tobacco, marijuana
What are the Socially acceptable substances for the CNS?
Therapeutic agents
treat:
pain
mental disorders
sleep disorders
Parkinson's Disease
Epilepsy
pain
mental disorders
sleep disorders
Parkinson's Disease
Epilepsy
What do the therapeutic agents treat in the CNS?
Pass BBB and distributed throughout brain

must be FAT SOLUBLE

Thought to act at synapses by either affecting:
a. release of neurotransmitter (increase or decrease amount released)
b. receptor stimulation (agonists stimulates and antagonists block the receptor
c. receptor number - a long term effect

some drugs change the number of receptors available (up or down regulation)
How do CNS drugs work?
CNS drugs mechanism of action
Pass BBB and distributed throughout brain

must be FAT SOLUBLE

Thought to act at synapses by either affecting:
a. release of neurotransmitter (increase or decrease amount released)
b. receptor stimulation (agonists stimulates and antagonists block the receptor
c. receptor number - a long term effect

some drugs change the number of receptors available (up or down regulation)
distributed
FAT
synapses
neurotransmitter
agonists
antagonists
receptors
CNS drugs

Pass BBB and ___________ throughout brain

must be ____ SOLUBLE

Thought to act at _________ by either affecting:
a. release of ______________(increase or decrease amount released)
b. receptor stimulation (________ stimulates and ___________ block the receptor
c. receptor number - a long term effect

some drugs change the number of __________ available (up or down regulation)
1. 10 million neurons
2. numerous neurotransmitters
- NE, Ach, dopamine, serotonin, GABA, histamine, glutamate, opiates

3. At least 1 receptor for each different transmitter
Why is the CNS more complicated than the ANS?
hypothalamus and reticular activating system
Where are the receptors located in the brain for NE?
limbic structures in cortex
Where are the receptors located in the brain for Dopamine?
hypothalamus
reticular activating system
Where are the receptors concentrated in the brain for NE?
limbic structures in the cortex
Where are the receptors concentrated in the brain for dopamine?
body temp
alertness
wakefulness
What MIGHT be some functions for NE in the brain?
emotion
schizophrenia
What MIGHT be some functions for Dipamine in the brain?
prominent effect or main therapeutic effect
In the outline, how are drugs classified?
Sensation acuity increased (greater awareness of the environment)

Motor activity increased (restlessness)
What are the SIGNS of CNS stimulation?
Sensation acuity decreases
(lack of perception, drowsy, not alert)

Motor activity decreases
(lethargic)
What are the SIGNS of CNS depression?
misleading
stimulate
stimulants
depressants
All CNS drugs USED to be classified as stimulants or depressants, but was __________.

A drug may _________ one area of the brain but depress other areas. Concept of stimulation and depression is very important. Still are two important categories called ___________ and ___________.
euphoria (feeling of well being)
anxiety and nervousness
tremors and hallucinations
convulsions or seizures
death
According to the continuum chart, what are the signs for stimulants?
sedation (drowsy)
hyponosis (sleep)
general anesthesia (loss of conciousness)
coma
death
According to the continuum chart, what are the signs for depressants?
drug abuse
difficult to define
Conveys notion of:
1. chronic use
2. Social disapproval

Does not necessarily deal with potential for adverse effects (e.g. smoking)

ex. alcohol abuse - chronic

ex. OK to use sleeping pill everyday if physician prescribes (socially acceptable)
difficult to define
Conveys notion of:
1. chronic use
2. Social disapproval

Does not necessarily deal with potential for adverse effects (e.g. smoking)
Define drug abuse.
Tolerance
state where one must increase the dose of a drug in order to acheive or maintain the desired effect. (all narcotics, barbiturates, alcohol, tobacco). Recall that ________ may be "metabolic" or "receptor" based.
always
physically
not
metabolic
compulsion
Tolerance _______ occurs in process of becoming ________ addicted to a drug. (May get tolerance to drugs that are ____ addicting, but this is usually _________ tolerance and does not deal with the CNS. "Addiction" implies __________ involving CNS drugs and/or endogenous CNS compounds.)
Physical dependence
An adaptive physiological state that occurs after administration of a drugs that manifests itself by physical distribution when the drug is withdrawn.
Psychological dependence
A state of emotional reliance upon a drug in order to maintain a state of well being. Tolerance, if it does occur, is of the "metabolic" type so there are no withdrawl symptoms.