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23 Cards in this Set

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Oxygen
decrease
demand
two

treating angina
Supply vs. demand for ________: i.e. Pain caused by sudden:

________ of the blood supply to heart muscle or

increase oxygen _______ without increased oxygen supply.

or combination of the ____.


What is this for?
coronary
Prinzmetals
anemia

treating angina
Decreased oxygen supply:

atherosclerosis in _______ arteries (_________ variant angina)

may also associated with severe _______.

What is this for?
exercise
hypertension
Increased oxygen demand:

_______ or strong emotion

heart overworking (valve disease, __________, pulmonary hypertension
Nitrates
B blockers
Ca++ channel blocking agents
What are the drugs that can be used to treat Angina?
Nitrates
What is the drug of choice to treat angina?
B blockers
What drug is this that treat angina?

does not help during attack

used to prevent attack (mechanism: decrease workload of heart)
Ca++ channel blockers
Blocks movement of extracellular calcium into cells. Stops some muscle contraction.

Dilation of coronary and peripheral vessels; decrease in cardiac contractility.
Blocks movement of extracellular calcium into cells. Stops some muscle contraction.
What is the mechanism of action for Ca++ channel blockers?
Ca++ channel blockers

(therapeutic effects)
Useful chiefly in Prinzmetal "variant" angina due to coronary artery spasm (not better than nitrates, however).

Not very useful if coronary vessels are occluded.
Ca++ channel blockers

(side effects)
result from relaxation of smooth and cardiac muscle. Hypotension, peripheral edema, dizzines, headache, sometimes bradycardia and ***possible CHF*** if patient susceptible. Constipation, nausea, diarrhea, fatigue.
Nitrates or Nitrites
relaxes smooth muscle

decreases work load of heart by decreasing BP

Does slightly increase O2 supply by dilating coronary arteries.
angina pectoralis

also hypertensive emergencies: BP control during surgery, hypertensive crisis
What are the therapeutic uses for Nitrates?
1. tachycardia
2. Headache
3. dizziness upon standing
4. nausea and vomiting
What are the side effects or toxic effects for Nitrates?
Contraindications or cautions for nitrates
1. Storage of medicine - deteriorates in light, high temps, moisture; keep away from body heat

2. Glaucoma - dilated eye vessels may increase intraocular pressure

3. Head trauma, cerebrovascular hemorrhage, intracraniam pressure..
hypertension
BP too high

what is this?
hypotension
BP too low
pressor agent
a agent that increases BP, vasoconstrictor
antipressor agent
a agent that decreases BP, vasodilator
Cardiac output - HR and stroke volume

Arteriole diameter

Blood volume
What are some factor that affect blood pressure?
increased workload on heart

direct damage to arteries (roughens walls and leads to arteriosclerosis)
Why is hypertension so damaging?
kidney
brain
heart
What are the organs that could be damaged by hypertension and lead to death?
Specific or second degree
less than 15%

only curable kinds

Pheochromocytoma
Cushing's Disease
Renal disease
essential or primary hypertension
just high BP

lots of Na+ in fluid

more than 85%