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21 Cards in this Set

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Local drug activity
drug action occurring only at the site of application (usually on skin or mucous membranes)
Systemic drug activity
action of a drug that is absorbed then distributed throughout the body.
1. Action may be on whole body OR only on a specific target organ
2. Toxic effects may occur when drug applied for local effects - becomes systemically absorbed.

-birth control
-antibiotics
Skin and Mucous membranes
GI tract
Parenteral routes
What are the general routes of administration of a drug?
Skin
Nasal mucosa
Inhalation
Genitourinary
What are the subgroups in skin and mucous membranes?

(chiefly "topical" routes)
Skin
local action usually intended

a. caution - skin broken - can lead to systemic
absorption.
b. uses - antiseptic, cleansing, emollient
Nasal Mucosa
a. local - spray, nose drops, decongestants, hemostatics caution - if too much applied may become systemically absorbed caution - even if correctly used may be dangerous if patient has contraindications (high BP, glaucoma)
Inhalation
a. local - antibiotics
- detergents and enzymes for breaking up secretions
b. systemic -anesthetics, CO2 and O2.
Genitourinary
a. usually LOCAL action intended
b. caution - if tramatized tissue, can get dangerous systemic effect.
1. oral
2. Sublingual and buccal
3. Rectal
What are the 3 enteral routes that a drug may be administered?
1. oral
usually for SYSTEMIC effect (exception: antacids, etc)

a. reasons used
1. convenience - simplest way to reach bloodstream
2. safety - often less expensive than injection

b. timing around meals
c. contraindications of oral route
2. Sublingual and buccal
below tongue or cheek

a. systemic - for drugs destroyed by LIVER or digestive enzymes

b. local - anesthetic or antiseptic (dentist)
3. Rectal
a. local - stimulate defectation reflex
b. systemic - retention enemas or suppositories
1. bypass liver and digestive enzymes
2. irritating to stomach
3. uncooperative or unconsious patient
4. antiemetic (vomiting)
GI tract
usually for SYSTEMIC effect (exception: antacids, etc)

a. reasons used
1. convenience - simplest way to reach bloodstream
2. safety - often less expensive than injection

b. timing around meals
c. contraindications of oral route

below tongue or cheek

a. systemic - for drugs destroyed by LIVER or digestive enzymes

b. local - anesthetic or antiseptic (dentist)

a. local - stimulate defectation reflex
b. systemic - retention enemas or suppositories
1. bypass liver and digestive enzymes
2. irritating to stomach
3. uncooperative or unconsious patient
4. antiemetic (vomiting)
1. convenience
2. safety
3. cost
What are the 3 reasons why the oral route is used?
timing around meals (oral)
before - quicker absorption, but more easily destroyed

with - drug irritations

after - slower absorption desired
Local
Rectal
Local or systemic and what is it?

stimulate defecation reflex
Systemic

Rectal
Local or systemic and what is it?

retention enemas or suppositories

1. bypass liver and digestive enzymes
2. irritate to stomach
3. uncooperative or unconsious patient
4. antiemetic (vomiting)
contraindications of oral route
1. patient vomiting or unconscious
2. drug too irritating
3. drug doesn't reach blood in high enough concentration
a. not absorbed through GI tract
b. destroyed by digestive enzymes
c. destroyed by liver
- portal system
- bypass using sublingual, buccal, or rectal route.
concentration
liver
1. patient vomiting or unconscious
2. drug too irritating
3. drug doesn't reach blood in high enough ____________
a. not absorbed through GI tract
b. destroyed by digestive enzymes
c. destroyed by _______
- portal system
- bypass using sublingual, buccal, or rectal route.
Parenteral routes
refers to injections (literally other than GI tract)
Parenteral routes
1. More hazardous route
2. Type of injection depends upon placement of needle
3. The most commonly given injections are: subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous.