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127 Cards in this Set

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Diuretics that inc CO, inc renal blood flow/glomerular P
Digital alkaloids, xanthine derivatives, colloidal plasma expanders
Simple diuretix
inhibit ADH release. Water and ethyl alcohol
Osmotic diuretix
Primary fxn to induce diuresis. Mannitol and Glycerin
Which diuretics are small, water solubles particles that are freely filtered, not secreted or reabsorbed?
Mannitol and Glycerin
Which diuretic can only be used for a few days and why?
Acidifying agent Ammonium Chloride. Tolerance dvlps. CAUSES ACIDOSIS. NH3 forms and combines with H+ to form NH4, which is +. Replaces Na+ for secretion of Cl-, so reduxn of urinary Na excretion and therefore water.
Mannitol: how given and to what animals
Slow IV, rums, cats, dogs, pigs, horses
Glycerin: how given and to what
PO. Dogs cats. Good for shock and renal failure
Which drugs are Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Acetazolamide, dozolamide
Acetazolamide and dozolamie benefits
Tx glaucomma. No tolerance dvlps. No side effects
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors mech of axn
Kidney prox tubules have carbonic anhydrase enzymes. Needed to reabs bicarb. Inhibits this. Plama Hyperchloremic acidosis, urinary alkalosis. Hypokalemia is possible. Mild axn.
Thiazide: Mech of axn and what its best to tx for.
Inc urinary excretion of Na + Cl. Good for treating hyperkalemia in states with high aldosterone activity: heart failure patients.
A down side for thiazide diuretics is that it can cause?
Diabetes, especially in subclinical cases (mellitis).
Diabetically, thiazide is good for what?
Can reduce urine flow in diabetes insipidus. Used for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Loop diuretics usage.
Most common in vet med, esp furosemide. Very potent.
Loop diuretix pharmacological ation.
Alter the trans epithelial potential, also inc urinary excretion of Ca + Mg.
The problem with furosemide and cats.
Autotoxicity. Not seen when used alone, but with aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Can fursemide be used in horses?
Yes, its the only diuretic approved in horse racing for prophylactic of exercise induced pulmonary hemmhorage.
What is K sparing diuretix (spinronolactore, amiloride, trameterene) mech of axn?
Act on collecting tubules to reduce Na reabs and K excretion. Can cause hyperkalemia then.
k spaing diuretics can be used with what to prevent hypokalemia?
Thiazide, loops, or Ca inhibitors.
Spinronolactore is a comp antagonist of what?
Aldosterone, which blocks Na reabs. May also cause hyperKalemia
Amiloride and trameterene do what?
Block ep Na channels and cause Hyperkalemia. Axns independant of aldosterone.
Appetite stim caveat
Determine underlying problem first.
which benzodiazapines can be used as appetite stimulants?
Diazepam and oxazepam
How quickly will animals eat after giving diazepam?
Within seconds. Make sure food is available.
Oxazepam can cause what in cats?
Hepatotoxicity. It doesnt depend on the dose or duration of tx, can occur anytime.
Cyproheptadine can be used as a what in cats? Any bad side effects?
Appetite stim. It does have anticholinergic effects and sedation.
Mirtazapine is good to tx what?
Poor appetite and emesis together in dogs and cats.
Mega sterol should not be used in which animals?
Cats, causes adrenal suppression, atropy, diabetes millitus.
Which glucocorticosteroids are used as appetite stimulants?
Dexamethasone and prednisone. Only give for a short period. Brkdwn many proteins.
Why do we give emetics?
To remove stomach content if poison eaten. Can only remove 60-80%. Its a protective reflex.
Apomorphine is what kind of emetic? How does it work, and what spp gets it?
Central emetic. Directly depresses central emetic center. Dont use a 2nd time if it wont work. Dogs.
What type of emetic is xylazine? Works best on which species?
Central acting. a2 adrenergic R agonist. causes high vomiting rates in cats and dogs. Used esp in cats.
Should H2O2 (local emetic) be used concentratedly?
No
Ipecac (local emetic) takes how long?
15-30 minutes. It can cause cardio problems though.
Phenothiazepine: What type of drug is it, how does it work, and drug types. Also, wont stop what?
Cetral acting anti-emetic. Acepromazine and chlorpromazine. Wont stop vagal-induced vomiting (from GI, peritoneal).
What is metaclopramide and why is it good?
Central and peripheral antiemetic drug.
Metaclopramide doesnt work in which part of the gut? how long does it act?
Doesnt stim motility in distal part of sm intestines or colon. Has a short duration of action.
Which drugs are serotonin antagonists?
Ondansetron, ganesetron, granisetron.
How serotonin antagonists work? Dont stop what type of pukie?
Central and peripheral serotonin R antagonists. No good for motion sickness.
Maropitent is used for what?
Tx active vomiting in dogs (FDA approved) and cats (Off label). Give orally or injected. Most common antiemetic in SA
Antihistamines are good at stoping what type of vomiting?
Motion sickness. Not as good on cats though.
Antimuscarinic antiemetics work how?
They dec GI motility. Inhibit Musc R in GI tract and cholinergic R in emetic center. Give for IBS and PNS stimulated vomiting. Cause vomiting otherwise.
There are how many types of receptors on parietal cells and which drugs act on these?
3-H2 antagonism, acetylcholine R, and gastrin R. Antiulcer agents work on these.
Which are major antacids and how do they work? What bad side effects?
Al salts, Mg salt, and Cal carbonate + Al...inhibit pepsin secretion. Constipation and diarhhea.
How long do antacids work?
Not long, take frequently.
Al salts are used on which animals and to tx what?
SA for hyperphosphatemia w/ renal failure. Bind phosphate and cannot be reabsorbed.
Dont give Mg salts to which conditioned animals?
Impaired kidney fxn. HyperMg ensues.
What is Gastric acid rebound?
Antacids make stomach pH alkaline.
Which is the most effective proton pump inhibiting gastric acid inhibitor? how does it work? Most effective for treating what?
Omeprazole. Irreversibly binds H-K ATPase pump required for synth of gastric acid (last step). Not stable in gastric pH. Most effective for prophylaxis of NSAID induced ulcer
Which cytoprotective drug forms a sticky paste-like complex in an acidic environment?
Sucralfate.
What is the primary use of misoprotosol, and what type of drug is it?
Its a cytoprotective drug thats primary use is for treating NSAID GI ulcers/side effects.
Prokinetic modulators of GI motility do what and act how?
Act on cholinergic NS to improve GI motility.
Metaclopramide is what type of drug and what does it do?
Central antidopaminergic (antiemetic).
Domperidone is what type of drug and what is it specifically used for?
Anticholinergic antiemetic. Tx fescue toxicity in horses. Give to poorly lactating mares to initiate lactation.
Dexpanthenol is what type of drug? What is it converted to?
Anticholinergic antiemetic. Rapidly convered to coenzyme A.
What type of drug is cisapride? How does it work and how is it special?
Anticholinergic antiemetic. Stims Ach release. Improves motility in distal SM intestines and inc colon.
Does cisapride pass the BBB? What does it stimulate?
What is it specifically given for?
No, unlike metaclopramide. Gastric emptying and sm intestines and colonic motility. GI motility problems in horses after surgery.
Which drugs are H2 rcptr antagonists? Which anmls are they used on and for what?
Ranitidine, fanitidine, nizatidine. Horses and sm animals for GI ulcers, hypersec conditions.
What is the drug of choice for diarrheal tx in dogs?
Opiod agonists. They pass BBB.
Anticholinergics and antispasmodics do what and how?
Antiemetics, but can promote vomiting by reducing motility.
Protectants/absorbants work how and do what?
Coat stomach and control diarrhea/vomiting. *Bismuth metab in sm Int -> bismuth carbonate + salicylate. Theyre antibacteiral and aspirin like. Anti inflammatory.
Laxatives/cathartics do what?
Decrease lg intestine water absorption.
Bulk laxatives are given for what, and in what form?
Sand impaction in horses, only raw linseed oil form (not cooked) for impaction.
Osmotic cathartics do what to the colon?
Decrease pH, improve motility and secretion.
Cats hate which drug?
Lactolose.
Surfactants/stool softeners are given for what?
Fecal impaction, not sand colics.
Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes are derived from what? What do they fxn in?
Derived from PUSFAs: aa from membrane lipids via phosphatase A2. Involved in inflammatory response.
COX-1 is ________ and COX-2 is ________, enzymatically speaking.
Constitutive, inducible. COX 1 normal physiologic fxns, and COX 2 made under inflamm response. Want to inhibit 2.
COX stands for what and what does it make? Lioxygenase makes what?
Cyclooxygenase, prostaglandins and thromboxane 2. Leukotrienes.
Whats dangerous about prostaglandin F2alpha?
Can be absorbed through skin, respiratory tract. Can cause abortion in all species.
PI2 inhibits what? Which drug is most effective for this?
Platelet aggregation. Aspirin.
Which prostaglandins act to inc blood flow and GFR?
E2 and I2
Prostaglandins do what to the GI tract?
Inhibit astric acid secretion, inc mucous and bicarb secretion
Which drugs can you give for gastrointestinal ulceration?
Misoprotosol, cimetidine, ranitidine, omeprazole-this one is the best drug for prophylaxis of NSAID ulceration.
What are the cardinal signs of imflammation?
Heat, redness, swelling, pain
How do you classify NSAIDS, and do they have an analgesic effect in Non-inflammed tissue?
By Cox inhibition or non-inhibition. No, flunixin is exception though.
What does aspirin inhibit in the inflamm response?
Thromboxane A2 synthesis.
NSAID pharmacokinetics: Is half life variable?
Yes, b/c of differences in systemic clearance. Theres a poor correlation to duration of action vs. half life., correlates better with nature of binding.
How are NSAIDS eliminated and why are cats sensitive to NSAIDS?
Form conjugates with glucaronic acid. Cats dont have this.
NSAID side effx? Dont use with which other drugs?
GI ulceration most common. Dont use with gluccocorticoids.
NSAID drug interactions.
These acidic drugs are highly protein bound and can displace ot be displaced based on protein binding.
How does Furosemide work? (Nsaid)
Reduces payloa through prostaglandin. Increases synthesis of prostaglandin.
Why dont we use aspirin in cats? What happends to aspirin in horses?
Lack glucoronyl conjugation system. Eliminate quickly due to alkaline urine.
Which NSAID dont we use in dogs and why?
Naproxen b/c of enterhepatic circulation leading to long half life. Dont use ibeuprofen either.
Meclofenacmic acid is what type of drug and is used on which animal?
NSAID, dogs. It is toxic though, has a narrow TI. Little info on safety and efficacy on horses.
Flunixin is what type of drug and used in which animals and why?
Potent NSAID. Used in horses. Control pain that only responds to opioids.
Which NSAID is the preferred drug for control of visceral pain and inflammation in colic?
Flunixin.
Flunixin should not be given to which animals and why?
Cats, dogs b/c it is quite toxic.
Phenylbutazone is what type of drug and is given to which animals for what?
Nsaid given to horses for lameness and musculoskeletal problems. Dont use in dogs, better ones out there.
Acetominophen is not used in which species and why? What is its antidote?
Cats, b/c they lack gluconyl transferase enzyme. Antidote is N-acetylcysteine.
What is the NSAID of choice for cat?
Ketoprofen
Meloxicam is what type of drug and is FDA approved for which animal? How is it given?
Nsaid, cats. Give one SQ dose.
Tepoxalin is what type of drug and how does it work?
Nsaid. Dual inhibitor of aa metabolism. Inhibits COX enzyme and lipoxygenase enzyme (Leukotriene).
Etodolac is what type of drug and is not used in which species?
Nsaid not used in cats!!
Declofenac sodium is what type of drug and is usually given to treat what?
Nsaid given topically for tx of uveitis.
Piroxicam is what type of drug and how is it special? Is it a safe drug?
Nsaid capable of antitummor properties. May inhibit angiogenesis @ tumor site. Not the safest, has a narrow TI. Dont give to cats.
Orgotein is what type of drug and shouldnt be given to patients with what type of history?
NSAID not inhibiting COX. Dont use in patients with previous hpersensitivity to drug or bovine protein.
DMSO is what type of drug?
NSAID no inhibiting Cox
Can DMSO cross all biological membranes?
Yes, w/o even causing damage.
What is DMSO used for? How is it applied?
Reduce swelling of musculoskeletal trauma and acute CNS trauma. Apply topically.
Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan is what type of drug and is used for what?
NSAID w/o inibition of COX used topically in dogs, horses for indolent corneal ulcer.
Polysuulfated glycosaminoglycan is structurally similar to what, and how does it work?
Similar to mucopolysaccharides, and it binds damaged cartilage and protects it-chondroprotective.
Hyaluronic acid is chemically different between species T/F
False, identical regardless of species.
What are the actions of hyaluronic acid?
Binds in the joint and lubricates, absorbes shock, anti-inflamm effect by scavenging free radicals. Improves nutrion of articular cartilage as well.
What is ketoconzole used for?
A tx for cushings disease. Inhibits steroid (glucorticoid) synthesis. Used when op'DDD doesnt work. BID. Not used in cats.
What is trilostane used for?
Tx for cushings. Inhibits corticosterone and aldosterone synthesis. May see addisons. Most stable
L-deprenyl is used to tx what?
PDH cushings. Increases domapine and inhibits ACTH.
Which mineralcorticoid is given for acute and chronic addisons?
Fludrocortisone
When mineralcorticoid is given for acute addisons?
Deoxycorticosterone pivalate
Name the places opiates inhibit pain perception in the CNS?
Dorsal horn, hypothalamus, medulla, spinal cord
Name the places opiates inhibit pain perception peripherally?
GI and pituitary
Name the 3 families of opioid peptides
Met, leu-enkephalins. beta-endorphin. Dynorphin A
Met, leu-enkephalins work on which opiate subtype of rcptr?
Delta, for emotion
beta-endorphins act on which opiate rcptr subtype?
mu 1,2 for analgesia
Dynorphin A acts on which opiate rcptr subtype?
kappa 1,2,3 for anti tussive and analgesia FX.
What is the precursor protein for enkephlin and endorphin?
Prepro-opiomelanocortin. Makes it inn response to stress. Gets cleaved into precursors for pain killers.
How do opiods work to get rid of pain?
Override pain pathways. Tx visceral pain. Inhibit transmissions and stimulate desn inhibitory pathways mediated through interneurons
Do opiods inhibit adenylate cyclase? If so, whats the effect?
Yes. This will lead to an increase in cAMP. When opiod use stops, hish cAMP yeilds withdrawl symptoms. Adenylate cyclase levels need to return to normal to rid cAMP. THis is withdrawl period.
Which opiate subtype rcptr does morphine work on?
mu big time +++. d and k just +. Causes analgesia and resp depression
Butorphanol and pentazocine work on which opiate rcptr subtypes?
k ++. Cause sedation and analgesia.
Naloxone and diprenorphine do what?
Tx opiate overdose. Have a greater affinity for opiod rcptr.
What does glargine do?
Its an insulin replacement used in cats primarily. Its human mutated recombinant.
What is vetsulin?
Only approved insulin replacement. Comes from pigs. Administer 2x daily to cats and dogs.
Sulfonylreas meglitinides is what type of drug?
Stimulates pancreas to make more insulin. Ised in type 2 diabetes. Cats only.
Thiazolidinediones biuanides do what?
Sensitize body to insulin. Works inc cats
Glipizide is what?
Stims beta cells to make insulin. Most used for cats. Only type 2.