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33 Cards in this Set

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Pharmacology Definition
the study of drugs that alter functions of living organisms
pharmacotherapy
the use of drugs to prevent, diagnose, or treat signs, symptoms, and disease processes
medications
drugs given for therapeutic purposes
chemical characteristics"
prototype
first drug in a group, sets the standard by which all other drugs in the group are measured (penicillin for antibs, morphine for analgesics, etc.)
generic name
related to the chemical or official name of the drug (amoxicillin)
trade name
designated and patented by the manufacturer - amoxil, trimox, zoloft, etc.
drug approval process
4 phases of testing and clinical trials, then FDA approval
phase 1 clinical trials
15-20 healthy volunteers - watching absorption, metabolism, excretion, toxicity
phase 2 clinical trials
50-100 people with disease
phase 3 clinical trials
10-15,000 people with disease - do benefits outweigh the risks? Leads up to the FDA approval.
Phase 4 clinical trials
following FDA approval, goes on for 15 years, drug is marketed for use with continued data collection for safety - this is the phase nurses are constantly directly involved in.
can a client experience systemic effects of local drugs and local effects of systemic drugs?
yes, for instance, if lidocaine is placed near an open wound, it could enter the bloodstream and have a systemic effect.
pharmacokinetics
absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion
absorption
"process occurs from the time the drug enters the body to the time it enters the bloodstream
first-pass effect
when a drug is given orally, it is absorbed from the GI tract and carried to the liver for metabolism via portal circulation - some of the drug is metabolized in the liver
distribution
"drugs carried by blood and tissues to sites of action, metabolism and excretion
protein binding
drugs that bind to protein can be longer lasting or slow release. they are only released from their protein binding when the serum level is low. only free or unbound portion of drug can act because of size.
metabolism
breaking down a drug into its useable form
what happens if 2 drugs compete for protein-binding sites?
one drug will be displaced due to lack of adequate binding spots and therefore have a higher serum level - could be a big problem
some drugs that are highly protein bound:
"warfarin
effect of long term malnutrition on protein binding meds
more drug circulates in blood due to lack of binding sites, increases serum level, has a stronger effect on the patient
excretion requirements
"good circulation system
MEC
minimum effective concentration - minimum serum level required for drug to have pharmacologic effect on cells
duration of action
time taht the serum blood levels are above the MEC
toxic concentration
excessive levels of a drug - either from one overdose, repeated doses, or slow metabolism of properly administered doses
serum half-life
amount of time required for blood serum level of a drug to decrease by 50%
pharmacodynamics
the action of a drug on a cell
receptor theory
primarily agonists and antagonists (agonists stimulate a cell to do its function, antagonists block a cell from doing its function) this is how antidotes work
nonreceptor actions
"environmental changes like acid environment, osmolality
enteral
oral administration
parenteral
injected administration
client related variables
age, pregnancy, body weight, genetic and ethnic characteristics, gender, pathologic conditions, psychological conditions (placebo)