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### 65 Cards in this Set

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 never double the dose to double the concentration on these types of drugs Zero order meds If the dose is doubled, then the concentration is doubled on these types of drugs First order meds With 1st order drugs, the (fraction or Amount) of the drug that is eliminated over time is constant? Fraction types of clearance renal, hepatic, biliary, pulmonary This is an indicator of how well your kidneys are working Creatine Clearance Normal Creatinine level in men 0.8-1.3 mg/dl normal creatinine level in women 0.6-1.0 mg/dl normal CrCl for men 97-137 ml/min normal Crcl for women 88-128 ml/min less than this # of CrCl suggest renal dysfunction <60 ml/min For people older than 65yrs, you should adjust their SCr to ___ if it's less than 1 one Which body wt is used to calculate CrCl for obese pt's? ABW formula for ABW IBW + .4(TBW-IBW) What's the Cockcroft-Gault equation? used to calculate CrCl (140-age)(wt kg)/(72)(SCr) for females: same formula x .85 formula for Volume of distribution VdL= dose/Co formula for elimination rate constant -k hr=Ln(C1/Co)/t1-to half-life equation t1/2hr= 0.693/k IBW equation males 50+(2.3xht in inches>60 females 45 + (.....) equation for BSA SQ RT of (Ht cm)(wt kg)/3600 ACH is inhibitory on which Cranial nerve Vagus nerve Where is ACH released Released at NM junction Released by axons of limbic system in brain Which NTS are transported back into the synaptic end bulbs after release Catecholamines What are the actions of nicotinic receptors release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla, ganglionic transmission, and transmission of the somatic neuromuscular junction what are sympathomimetics Adrenergic drugs that mimic the actions of epinephrine name a drug that blocks Alpha 1 receptors Prazosin (minipress) Name a drug that blocks Alpha 2 receptors Yohimbine Major antihypertensive action of selective alpha agonists such as clonidine (Catapres®), probably occurs as a result of agonism of alpha2A receptors in the CNS. Why? Because activation of the presynaptic alpha2 receptors inhibits the release of NE What type of response do adrenergic beta receptors generally have on smooth muscle when activated Inhibitory: bronchodilation and vasodilation Name the classical agonist of beta-receptors isoproterenol (Isuprel®) a non-selective antagonist of both beta1 and beta2 receptors would cause? slowing of the HR, vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction What does a selective alpha1 antagonist do? Inhibits the release of Norepi examples of chemotherapeutic Agents sulfa drugs and antibiotics examples of of pharmacodynamic Agents Cholinergic, Adrenergic, Hallucinogenic, Sedatives what does penicillin do to the cell interferes with cell wall synthesis in bacteria and the effect is the death of the bacteria. name two disorders Involving the Neuromuscular Junction Botulism and tetanus Site of muscarinic receptors at the postganglionic parasympathetic neuroeffector junction in smooth muscle, heart, and exocrine glands When activated, Beta 2 receptors produce? bronchodilation, vasodilation and uterine relaxation Name a selective Beta 2 agonist used to treat asthma terbutaline (brethine) Name the classical antagonist of Beta receptors Propranolol (inderal) causes of pharmacokinetic variations age disease states genetic factors obesity The therapeutic ranges for the drugs we need to know Gentamicin: 5-10mg/L; <2 Tobramycin: 5-10mg/L; <2 Vancomycin: 20-40; 5-20 What is the half-life for gentamicin? 2-3 hrs How do you treat serious gram negative bacterias? Gentamicin/Tobramycin 50-120 mg IV q 8-12 hrs Peak taken 30min after infusion trough taken before next infusion How do you treat serious gram positive bacterias? Vancomycin 1 gm IV q 12 hrs Peak taken 1hr after infusion trough taken right before next infusion alpha 1 agonist dopamine alpha 1 antagonist Prozasin (minipress) alpha 2 agonist clonidine alpha 2 antagonist yohimbine beta 1, beta 2 agonist isoproterenol beta 1, beta 2 antagonist propranolol selective beta 1 agonist dopamine selective beta 1 antagonist metoprolol(lopressor) selective beta 2 agonist albuterol or terbutaline selective beta 2 antagonist butoxamine What does Prozac do? SSRI, works at 5HT2 and 5HT3 This is an antagonist at M2 muscarinic receptors Atropine, causes decrease in parasympathetic effects Labetalol selective alpha 1 antogonist non-selective antagonist of beta 1 & 2 process of intracellular communication 1. agonist binds to receptor 2. G-protein activated by GTP 3. G-protein stims effector 4. Effector affect Camp 5. Camp effects protein kinases 6. phosphorylation of enzymes 7. Cellular response When would you give Vanco by mouth patients with CDiff Bind to a greater extent to plasma proteins and metabolized in the liver lipophilic drugs Bind to a lesser extent to plasma proteins and eliminated in the kidney hydrophilic drugs Elimination consist of? 1. Glomerular filtration 2. Tubular secretion 3. Tubular reabsorption Aminoglycosides Vancomycin Gentamycin Tobramycin Vd for Gentamycin around 0.25 L/kg Name a sodium channel blocker Lidocaine- anaesthetic that increases threshold time