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65 Cards in this Set

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never double the dose to double the concentration on these types of drugs
Zero order meds
If the dose is doubled, then the concentration is doubled on these types of drugs
First order meds
With 1st order drugs, the (fraction or Amount) of the drug that is eliminated over time is constant?
types of clearance
renal, hepatic, biliary, pulmonary
This is an indicator of how well your kidneys are working
Creatine Clearance
Normal Creatinine level in men
0.8-1.3 mg/dl
normal creatinine level in women
0.6-1.0 mg/dl
normal CrCl for men
97-137 ml/min
normal Crcl for women
88-128 ml/min
less than this # of CrCl suggest renal dysfunction
<60 ml/min
For people older than 65yrs, you should adjust their SCr to ___ if it's less than 1
Which body wt is used to calculate CrCl for obese pt's?
formula for ABW
What's the Cockcroft-Gault equation?
used to calculate CrCl

(140-age)(wt kg)/(72)(SCr)

for females: same formula x .85
formula for Volume of distribution
VdL= dose/Co
formula for elimination rate constant
-k hr=Ln(C1/Co)/t1-to
half-life equation
t1/2hr= 0.693/k
IBW equation
males 50+(2.3xht in inches>60

females 45 + (.....)
equation for BSA
SQ RT of (Ht cm)(wt kg)/3600
ACH is inhibitory on which Cranial nerve
Vagus nerve
Where is ACH released
Released at NM junction
Released by axons of limbic system in brain
Which NTS are transported back into the synaptic end bulbs after release
What are the actions of nicotinic receptors
release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla, ganglionic transmission, and transmission of the somatic neuromuscular junction
what are sympathomimetics
Adrenergic drugs that mimic the actions of epinephrine
name a drug that blocks Alpha 1 receptors
Prazosin (minipress)
Name a drug that blocks Alpha 2 receptors
Major antihypertensive action of selective alpha agonists such as clonidine (Catapres®), probably occurs as a result of agonism of alpha2A receptors in the CNS. Why?
Because activation of the presynaptic alpha2 receptors inhibits the release of NE
What type of response do adrenergic beta receptors generally have on smooth muscle when activated
Inhibitory: bronchodilation and vasodilation
Name the classical agonist of beta-receptors
isoproterenol (Isuprel®)
a non-selective antagonist of both beta1 and beta2 receptors would cause?
slowing of the HR, vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction
What does a selective alpha1 antagonist do?
Inhibits the release of Norepi
examples of chemotherapeutic Agents
sulfa drugs and antibiotics
examples of of pharmacodynamic Agents
Cholinergic, Adrenergic, Hallucinogenic, Sedatives
what does penicillin do to the cell
interferes with cell wall synthesis in bacteria and the effect is the death of the bacteria.
name two disorders Involving the Neuromuscular Junction
Botulism and tetanus
Site of muscarinic receptors
at the postganglionic parasympathetic neuroeffector junction in smooth muscle, heart, and exocrine glands
When activated, Beta 2 receptors produce?
bronchodilation, vasodilation and uterine relaxation
Name a selective Beta 2 agonist used to treat asthma
terbutaline (brethine)
Name the classical antagonist of Beta receptors
Propranolol (inderal)
causes of pharmacokinetic variations
disease states
genetic factors
The therapeutic ranges for the drugs we need to know
Gentamicin: 5-10mg/L; <2
Tobramycin: 5-10mg/L; <2
Vancomycin: 20-40; 5-20
What is the half-life for gentamicin?
2-3 hrs
How do you treat serious gram negative bacterias?
Gentamicin/Tobramycin 50-120 mg IV q 8-12 hrs

Peak taken 30min after infusion
trough taken before next infusion
How do you treat serious gram positive bacterias?
Vancomycin 1 gm IV q 12 hrs

Peak taken 1hr after infusion
trough taken right before next infusion
alpha 1 agonist
alpha 1 antagonist
Prozasin (minipress)
alpha 2 agonist
alpha 2 antagonist
beta 1, beta 2 agonist
beta 1, beta 2 antagonist
selective beta 1 agonist
selective beta 1 antagonist
selective beta 2 agonist
albuterol or terbutaline
selective beta 2 antagonist
What does Prozac do?
SSRI, works at 5HT2 and 5HT3
This is an antagonist at M2 muscarinic receptors
Atropine, causes decrease in parasympathetic effects
selective alpha 1 antogonist
non-selective antagonist of beta 1 & 2
process of intracellular communication
1. agonist binds to receptor
2. G-protein activated by GTP
3. G-protein stims effector
4. Effector affect Camp
5. Camp effects protein kinases
6. phosphorylation of enzymes
7. Cellular response
When would you give Vanco by mouth
patients with CDiff
Bind to a greater extent to plasma proteins and metabolized in the liver
lipophilic drugs
Bind to a lesser extent to plasma proteins and eliminated in the kidney
hydrophilic drugs
Elimination consist of?
1. Glomerular filtration
2. Tubular secretion
3. Tubular reabsorption
Vd for Gentamycin
around 0.25 L/kg
Name a sodium channel blocker
Lidocaine- anaesthetic that increases threshold time