Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
teratogen definition
an exogenous agent inducing abnormalities of development- sensitive period between weeks 3 and 8 of gestation (all-or-none phenomenon), after that the deficits tend to be functional and not structural

including: drugs, viruses, radiation, hyperthermia, and maternal illnesses
Paternal teratogenesis
1) induction of genetic damage in sperm
2) sperm acts as a physical carrier of the agent (i.e. in animals, cocaine injected into rats causes the pregnancies fostered by these rats to have birth defects)
3) seminal fluid transfer- agents found in the seminal fluid may be able to transfer teratogens

Occupational risks= exposure to solvents- janitors, painters, printers, fire fighters
dose-response effects
The greater the exposure during pregnancy the more severe the phenotypic effect
prednisone birth defect
cleft palate
Identification of human teratogens
Suspect, if after exposure there is:
1. Abrupt increase in defect
2. Distinct pattern of malformation
3. Coincidence of increase with an agent
4. Sufficient number of cases
5. Known exposure to agent in pregnancy
6. Absence of other factors
FDA’s Use-in-pregnancy Drug Rating
Category A = controlled studies show NO risk
Category B = no evidence of risk in humans
Category C = risk cannot be ruled out
Category D = contraindicated in pregnancy (ex. thalidomide)

used to relieve nausea and cause sedation (R enantomer only), anti-inflammatory for leprosy (must register with STEPS)

Mechanism- intercalates into guanine rich regions (ex. GC Box in promoters and regulatory regions)

Defects (S enantomer only):bilateral limb reduction, defects in external ears, kidneys and heart
permanently altered gene expression in these people- their kids will have birth defects too
Fetal alcohol syndrome
most common cause of mental retardation and birth defects

Characteristic facial features, growth deficiency of prenatal onset, mental retardation

*1-2 drinks/day deleterious to some fetuses
*Binge drinking more harmful than steady drinking at particular times: Leads to neuronal apoptosis
Fetal alcohol effect (FAE)
some but not all of the symptoms of FAS and attention deficit disorder
Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
Used to prevent miscarriages (actually causes them!)

Effects seen 20-30 years later:
vaginal adenocarcinoma; also abnormalities of cervix and uterus
genital abnormalities and noncancerous growth in males
even grandchildren get genital abnormalities
Exogenous Retinoids (ex Acutane)
Usage: Acne (Acutane) or psoriasis (Soriatane)

Defects: hydrocephaly, heart defects, small head, mental retardation, and craniofacial abnormalities

*worse if combined with Alcohol