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50 Cards in this Set

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WHat is pharmacokinetics?
It is what the body does to the drug,(the fate of the drug).
What are the four steps of pharmacokinetics?
Absorbtion, distrbution, metabolism, and exration
Describe absorbtion?
Absorption-The process by which a drug passes from its site of administration into the bloodstream
This requires the passage of the drug across cell membranes, unless the drug is given directly into the bloodstream
What is bioavailability?
The amount of the drug that reaches the site of action.

IV drugs have 100% bioavailability
IF a drug is lipid soluble what does that mean for its membrane permeability?
it crosses cell mebranes easily.
WHat three factors influence mebrane permeablity?
Molecular size
Lipid solubility
Degree of ionization
What is distrabution?
Bloodstreem to tissue
What drugs can cross the BBB?
Highly lipid soluble drugs
If a drug is bound to a protien what effect will it have on the body?
none, only free drugs can reach target cells.
What is the problem protien binding drugs have with drug drug interactions>
They often compete for receptors sites on protiens giving a much higher amount of free drug.
What is pharmicdynamics?
the effect the drug has on the body.
define affinity?
the degree of attraction between a drug and a receptor
Define intrinsic activity?
the ability of a drug to activate a receptor following binding
define Efficacy?
the degree to which a drug produces its desired effect
define Potency?
the dose of the drug that is required to achieve 50% of the maximal response.
WHat are the different categories of drugs related to pregos?
A: fetal harm is unlikely
B: no evidence of risk in 2nd or 3rd trimester; no risk seen in animal studies, but not confirmed in women during 1st trimester
C: risk is unknown; use only if benefit greatly outweighs risk
D: evidence of adverse risk
X: contraindicated in pregnant women
wHAT ARE THE THREEE TYPES OF DRUG DRUG INTERATIONS?
Complimentary
Solo
contradctory
What are drug characterisxtics that should be avoided by pregos>
Very low molecular weight, Radiocative, lipid soluble (anything that cross the BBB), and low protien binding.
What are Indirect acting parasympathomimetic drugs ?
may be either reversible cholinesterase inhibitors, irreversible cholinesterase inhibitors or drugs that promote ACh release or anti-adrenergics.
What is Bethanechol?
sometimes given orally or subcutaneously to treat urinary retention resulting from general anesthetic or diabetic neuropathy of the bladder, or to treat . gastrointestinal atony (lack of muscular tone). The muscarinic receptors in the bladder and gastrointestinal tract stimulate contraction of the bladder and expulsion of urine, and increased gastrointestinal motility, respectively. It is a direct acting parasympathetic drug.
What do direct acting parasympathetic drugs do?
They stimulate receptors directly.
What is Donepezil?
Donepezil (also misspelled donezepil), marketed under the trade name Aricept by its developer Eisai and partner Pfizer, is a centrally acting reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.[1] Its main therapeutic use is in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease where it is used to increase cortical acetylcholine.
What is dobutamine (Dobutrex)?
A beta 1 agonoist a sympathomimetic drug used in the treatment of heart failure and cardiogenic shock. Its primary mechanism is direct
WHat is albuterol(Proventil)?
is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
What is prazosin (minopress)?
Specifically, prazosin is selective for the alpha-1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle. which lower blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels.
What is Propranolol (Inderal)?
is a non-selective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. It was the first successful beta blocker developed.
What is metoprolol (Lopressor)?
selective beta1-adrenoreceptor blocking ,used to treat angina (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). It is also used to treat or prevent heart attack.
WHat is the main use for selective beta agonist drugs?
Beta1 agonists: Cardiac arrest, HF, shock (dobutamine, DOBUTREX)
Beta2 agonists: Asthma (terbutaline, BRETHINE); decrease uterine contractions (ritodrine, YUTOPAR)
What is the main use for selective alpha agonist?
Alpha1 agonists: Treatment of nasal congestion (oxymetazoline, AFRIN); treatment of shock (norepinephrine, LEVOPHED)
Alpha2 agonists: Treatment of HTN (methyldopa, ALDOMET; clonidine, CATAPRES)
Which catagory of drugs is used as eye drops and nasal decongestants?
Alpha 1 agonist
What are the most common side effects when using sympathomimetic agents (adrenergic agonist)?
Headache
Restlessness
Excitement
Insomnia
Euphoria
What is the difference between sympathomimetics and Sympatholytics ?
sympathomimetics-adrenergic agonist
Sympatholytics - adrenergic antagonist
What is the main use for sympatholytic drugs (adrenergic antagonist?
Used extensively to treat hypertension.
Most widely prescribed class of autonomic drugs.
What is some of the pt teaching we give with sympatholitc drugs?
Do not stop abruptly and monitor liver and kidney lab values frequently.
WHat does the sympathlyitc alpha blocker (zonins_ do?
Smooth muscle
Doxazosin: vasodilatation and decreased BP
BPH
Increased urinary flow
what do sympatholyitc beta blockers do(olos)?
CV system: decrease rate and force of cardiac contraction, slow conduction thru AV node
Hypertension
Ease pain associated with angina pectoris
Treat dysrhythmias
WHat adverse effects do zozins have?
Common s/e is orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia
Instruct patient about 1st dose effect!
What are important things to remember about the adverse effeects of zozins?
Common s/e is orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia
Instruct patient about 1st dose effect!,
WHat do zonzins do to heart rate?
lower the heart rate, contrindicated in brady cardia and reynuads disease.
What do zozins help treat and what is the pregnencey catagory?
Migranes and they are a prego catagory c because they are lipophilic.
WHat do inderatacting cholanergic drugs do and treat?
They are cholenesterase inhibters the decrease the fucntion of the AchE and more ach is availible.
EX:Aricept(donepezil), neostigmine, tacrine(Cognex)
Help treat myestenia gravis and alzihemrs.and is a cure for anticholanergic poisoning.
WHat is a myestenic crises?
cholanergic crisis- death from paralysis of respiratory muscles. Cured by anti-cholanergic drugs.
To much what causes a cholanergic crises?
Ach- acetocholene
What do direct acting cholnergic agonist Treat?
Glucoma, xerostomia, and atonic blader, it tones the bladder and tightes the bladder sphinqtor
What are sighns of a cholenergic crisis or to much acetocholene.
Rememeber when the parasympathetic system is stimulate you are in rest and digest mode and the body begins to secreate more fluids. SLUDGE, Salivation
Lacrimation
Urinary Incontinence
Diarrhea
GI cramps
Emesis
What is the antidote to a cholenergic crisis?
Atrophine-competitive antagonist for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
WHat do anticholanergic drugs do (parasympatholytics)/
THEY LET the sympathtic system take over. go into flight or fight mode. Stomach relaxes, pupils dialate. used in opthalmic procedures.
Clinical uses of anticholanergic drugs(parasympatholytics)/
treates urinary incontance, raises HR, decrease respitory secrations, and dialates bronchi.
Whast does an Anticholanergic crisis look like?
Tachycardia
CNS stimulation
Urinary retention
Dry mouth and eyes
Decreased sweating
Photophobia
Impotence
What should pt. be tought to report immedatly when taking anticholanergic drugs?
Immediately report any chest pain, palpitations, blurred vision, headache, seizures, hallucinations, tachycardia