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59 Cards in this Set

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Bactericidal for gram positive cocci, gram positive rods, gram-negative cocci, and spirochetes.
Penicillin
S. aureus (except MRSA; resistant because of altered penicillin-binding protein target site).
Methicillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin
certain gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative rods (Haemophilus influenzae, E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella, enterococci).
Ampicillin, amoxicillin

Coverage: ampicillin/amoxicillin HELPS kill enterococci
Pseudomonas spp. and gram-negative rods; susceptible to penicillinase; use with clavulanic acid.
Ticarcillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin

TCP: Takes Care of Pseudomonas
gram-positive cocci, Proteus mirabilis, E. coli, Klebsiella
pneumoniae.
Cephalosporins
1st generation (cefazolin, cephalexin)––

PEcK
gram-positive cocci, Haemophilus influenzae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Neisseria spp., Proteus mirabilis, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens.
2nd generation (cefoxitin, cefaclor, cefuroxime)––

2nd generation––HEN PEcKS
serious gram-negative infections resistant to other
β-lactams; meningitis (most penetrate the blood-brain
barrier).

Examples: _________ for Pseudomonas;
__________ for gonorrhea.
3rd generation (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime)––

ceftazidime for Pseudomonas
ceftriaxone for gonorrhea
↑ activity against
Pseudomonas and gram-positive organisms.
4th generation (cefepime, cefpiramide)
Gram-negative rods- Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp. No activity against gram-positives or anaerobes. For penicillin-allergic patients and those with renal insufficiency who cannot tolerate aminoglycosides.
Aztreonam
Gram-positive cocci, gram-negative rods, and
anaerobes. Drug of choice for Enterobacter.
Imipenem/cilastatin, meropenem
Used for serious, gram-positive multidrug-resistant organisms, including S. aureus and Clostridium difficile (pseudomembranous colitis).
Vancomycin
Severe gram-negative rod infections. Synergistic with
β-lactam antibiotics. Neomycin for bowel surgery.
Aminoglycosides

Gentamicin, Neomycin, Amikacin, Tobramycin,
Streptomycin. (GNATS)
Vibrio cholerae, Acne, Chlamydia, Ureaplasma, Urealyticum, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Tularemia, H. pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease),
Rickettsia.
Tetracyclines - Tetracycline, doxycycline, demeclocycline, minocycline.


VACUUM THe BedRoom.
URIs, pneumonias, STDs––gram-positive cocci (streptococcal infections in patients allergic to penicillin), Mycoplasma, Legionella, Chlamydia, Neisseria.
Macrolides-

Erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin.
Meningitis (Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae).
Conservative use owing to toxicities.
Chloramphenicol
Treat anaerobic infections (e.g., Bacteroides fragilis,
Clostridium perfringens).

Treats anaerobes above the diaphragm
Clindamycin
Gram-positive, gram-negative, Nocardia, Chlamydia. Triple sulfas or SMX for simple UTI.
Sulfonamides-

Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfisoxazole, triple sulfas, sulfadiazine.
recurrent UTIs, Shigella,
Salmonella, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
Trimethoprim with Sulfonimides (TMP-SMX)
Gram-negative rods of urinary and GI tracts (including Pseudomonas), Neisseria, some gram-positive organisms.
Fluoroquinolones-
Ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, enoxacin (fluoroquinolones), nalidixic acid (a quinolone).
Anaerobic infection below the diaphragm.

Giardia, Entamoeba, Trichomonas, Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobes (Bacteroides, Clostridium). Used with bismuth and amoxicillin (or tetracycline) for “triple therapy” against H. pylori.
Metronidazole

GET on the Metro!
Resistant gram-negative infections.
Polymyxins
Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The only agent used as solo prophylaxis against TB.
Isoniazid (INH)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; delays resistance to dapsone when used for leprosy. Used for meningococcal prophylaxis and Haemophilus influenzae type B.
Rifampin
prophylaxis:

Meningococcal infection
Rifampin (drug of choice), minocycline
prophylaxis:

Gonorrhea
Ceftriaxone
prophylaxis:

Syphilis
Benzathine penicillin G
prophylaxis:

Recurrent UTIs
TMP-SMX
prophylaxis:

Pneumocystis Carinii pneumonia
TMP-SMX (drug of choice), aerosolized pentamidine
prophylaxis:

Endocarditis with surgical or dental procedures
Penicillins
Used for wide spectrum of systemic mycoses.
Cryptococcus, Blastomyces, Coccidioides,
Aspergillus, Histoplasma, Candida, Mucor
(systemic mycoses). Intrathecally for fungal
meningitis; does not cross blood-brain barrier.
Amphotericin B
“Swish and swallow” for oral candidiasis (thrush); topical for diaper rash or vaginal candidiasis.
Nystatin
Systemic mycoses. Fluconazole for cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS patients and candidal infections of all types (i.e., yeast infections). Ketoconazole for Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Candida albicans; hypercortisolism.
Fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole
Used in systemic fungal infections (e.g., Candida, Cryptococcus).
Flucytosine
Invasive aspergillosis.
Caspofungin
Used to treat dermatophytosis (especially onychomycosis)
Terbinafine
Oral treatment of superficial infections; inhibits growth of dermatophytes (tinea, ringworm).
Griseofulvin
Prophylaxis and treatment for influenza A; Parkinson’s disease.
Amantadine
Inhibit influenza neuraminidase.
Zanamivir, oseltamivir
RSV, chronic hepatitis C.
Ribavirin
HSV, VZV, EBV. Mucocutaneous and genital herpes lesions. Prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients.
Acyclovir
CMV, especially in immunocompromised patients.
Ganciclovir
CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients
when ganciclovir fails; acyclovir-resistant HSV.
Foscarnet
6 NUCLEOSIDE Reverse transcriptase
inhibitors
Zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddI), zalcitabine (ddC),
stavudine (d4T), lamivudine (3TC), abacavir.
3 NON-NUCLEOSIDE Reverse transcriptase
inhibitors
Nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz.
Protease Inhibitors
Saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir.

Never (navir) tease a protease inhibitor
chronic hepatitis B and C, Kaposi’s sarcoma.
IFN-α
MS
IFN-β
NADPH oxidase deficiency
IFN-γ
Onchocerciasis
Ivermectin

(rIVER blindness treated with IVERmectin)
Nematode/roundworm (e.g., pinworm, whipworm) infections.
Mebendazole/thiabendazole
Giant roundworm (Ascaris), hookworm (Necator/Ancylostoma), pinworm (Enterobius).
Pyrantel pamoate
Trematode/fluke (e.g., schistosomes, Paragonimus, Clonorchis) and cysticercosis.
Praziquantel
Cestode/tapeworm (e.g., Diphyllobothrium latum, Taenia species) infections except cysticercosis.
Niclosamide
Leishmaniasis.
Pentavalent antimony
Malaria.
Chloroquine, quinine,mefloquine, atovaquone,proguanil
Latent hypnozoite (liver) forms of malaria (Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale).
Primaquine
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis.
TMP-SMX, pentamidine
Chagas’ disease, American trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma cruzi).
Nifurtimox
African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness).
Suramin