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43 Cards in this Set

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3 mechanisms of transmission
Injection, sexual contact, maternal-fetal
Primary HIV infection
initial exposure to the virus and the appearance of HIV antibodies.
Flu-like symptoms
last a few days-several months
no test can detect it yet
when does dramatic decline in the rate of viral replication occur
during seroconversion
AIDS means
HIV positive and CD4 cell count that is below 200mm3 or an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection
What are the two test used to test for HIV?
ELISA and OraQuick Rapid
ELISA
determines presence of HIV antibodies, all positive ELISA tests get a western blot serologic test to confirm the diagnosis(takes several days)
OraQuick Rapid
HIV1 antibody test which gives results in 20 minutes.
What is the MAIN goal of antiretroviral therapy?
suppress viral replication to undetectable levels.
Start therapy when CD4 cell count is @ ________?
500
What is the reason for not starting therapy sooner?
the adverse effects
Zidovudine (Retrovir, AZT, ZDV)
NucleoSide reverse transcriptase inhibitor
what can be used for prevention of maternal-fetal HIV transmission: tx recommended to being at 14-34 weeks?
Zidovudine (Retrovir, AZT, ZDV)
Zidovudine (Retrovir, AZT, ZDV)
inhibits viral enzyme reverse transcriptase, required by retroviruses to convert RNA to DNA
Tenofavir (Viread)
NucleoTide reverse transcriptase inhibitor
What drug is used as a monotherapy for pregnant women?
Tenofavir (Viread)
Tenofavir (Viread)
differs structurally form NRTIs which helps to circumvent acquired drug resistance
Neviropine( Viramune)
Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
Which drugs is never just as monotherapy?
Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
Saquinavir (invirase Fortovase)
Protease inhibitor
which drug inhibits a process occurring late in viral replication: causing production of immature, noninfectious viral particles
Saquinavir (invirase Fortovase)
Management of HIV infection
Saquinavir (invirase Fortovase)
Enfuvirtide(Fuzeon)
Fusion inhibitor
this drug inhibits the fusion of HIV1 with CD4+ T-lymphocytes?
Enfuvirtide(Fuzeon)
What drug cost $20,000 per year?
Enfuvirtide(Fuzeon)
What drug is only used for pt with drug resistant HIV infection?
Enfuvirtide(Fuzeon)
HAART stands for
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
What is HAART?
use two or three drugs from more than one class of drugs
What is important pt teaching with HAART?
requires pts to take nearly 100% of prescribed doses!!!!
Why is viral load monitored?
the higher the number, the higher the burden; goal is to have an undetectable viral load
Pneumocyctis carinni pneumonia
protozoal/fungal infection
Canduduasus
mouth ulcers, vaginal yeast infection
cylomegalovirus
loss of vision, GI,N/V, weight loss
Herpes simples
oral, genital, rectal, esophagitis, encephalitis
Toxoplasmosis
parasite, infects brain and eyes
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
blank
cryptoporidiosis
fungal-fever, malaise, HA, cough
Kaposi's Sarcoma
red-blue blotches or nodules in mouth or viscera, rarely seen in women
Histoplasmosis
fungal, flu like symptoms
Possible comorbidities
mental illness, chemical addiction, hepatitis B and C
Antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy
ZDV 100 mg 5 times a day, tx begins at 14-34 weeks
how does circumcision effect HIV
circumcision can cut HIV rate
Reducing Risk of HIV infection
Drug Abusers
go into rehab, do not reuse needles, cleaning the inj site with an alcohol swab, safe disposal of syringes after one use
Do two people who are HIV positive need to use a condom?
yes, because they are at risk of infection