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50 Cards in this Set

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A patient is diagnosed with asthma and would like to use a medication that treats the cuase rather than the symptoms. She has heard of a medication that is considered the safest of all asthma medications and works by 'stabilizing' certain cells of the immune system. Which medication is she referring to?
Cromolyn (Intal)
Which of the following is an active ingredient in over 140 non-prescription cough medicines? This medication is the most effective non-opioid cough medicine. However, as stated in the text, this drug is subject to abuse with effects ranging from mild inebriation to a state much like that caused by phencyclidine (PCP).
Dextromethorphan
There are several different mechanisms by which peptic ulcer disease can be managed. Which of the following was the first approved that inhibits the H+/K+ATPase? Adverse effects include headache, gastrointestinal disturbances and the possibility of tumors with prolonged use - which is why this drug is indicated for short-term therapy.
Omeprazole (Prilosec)
A male patient in his early sixties presents with classic symptoms of peptic ulcer disease. After taking his medical history you learn that he took large doses of aspirin for years to help symptoms of his arthritis. When prescribing his medication you point out that if he were a female of child-bearing age there would be strict guidelines for the administration of this drug. Which one is it?
Misoprostol (Cytotec)
An AIDS patient is being treated for the vomiting associated with his chemotherapy for a rare cancer that has developed. What medication could be given to this patient as an anti-emetic and as an appetite stimulant?
Dronabinol (Marinol)
Which of the following set rules for the manufacture and distribution of drugs considered to have potential for abuse? One provision of this legislation defined categories (high to low potential).
Controlled Subtances Act
Consumption of grapefruit juice on a regular basis can have effects on the cytochrome P450 group of enzymes. The result of this effect would most likely be:
Altered metabolism
A clinical scientist is constructing dose-response curves for two pain relief drugs. Drug A has a threshold effect at 1 mg and Drug B has a threshold effect at 1 mg. However, at higher doses, the test subjects report a greater degree of pain relief with Drug B. Which is the most accurate statement about Drug A and B?
B is more efficacious than A
A patient presents with allergic rhinitis. She would like to try the medication that advertises a cartoon bumblebee with the voice of Antonio Banderas. You explain to the patient that this medication is a glucocorticoid and will be administered via nasal spray. Which of the following is the medication?
Mometasone (Nasonex)
Most drugs have been designed to have maximal absorption via oral delivery (swallowing a pill). However, one drug we have discussed is designed to have minimal absorption in the stomach. In fact, this drug forms a protective barrier in the stomach against active peptic ulcers. This drug can impede or block the absorption of other drugs and cause constipation. Which drug is it?
Sucralfate (Carafate)
For years, phenolphthalein was used as the active ingredient in ‘stimulant’ laxatives. However, the use of phenolphthalein was discontinued when it was linked with cancer. What is considered the prototype of stimulant laxative used today?
Bisacodyl (Dulcolax)
Alosetron (Lotronex) is unusual in that it was ‘re-approved’ by FDA after being removed from the market due to GI toxicity and deaths. Patients on this medication must now be part of a ‘risk management program.’ What is this medication most usually prescribed for?
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (with diarrhea)
Which of the following about ‘over-the-counter’ (OTC) drugs is FALSE?
OTC drugs do not have to be approved by the FDA
Which of the following was considered landmark drug legislation passed in the aftermath of the thalidomide tragedy in 1962? It required that drugs needed some proof of effectiveness and established rigorous procedures for the testing of new drugs.
Kefauver-Harris Admendments
Pharmacokinetics is derived from the words ‘drug’ & ‘motion’. Which of the following is NOT considered an aspect of pharmacokinetics (PK)?
Interaction between drug and target receptor
When discussing the distribution of a drug, which of the following is most commonly associated with retention of a drug within the vasculature? In other words, once it is in the vasculature what prolongs distribution?
Plasma binding proteins
A scientist is working in a drug discovery laboratory and is characterizing a receptor on a newly established line of cultured cells. After some preliminary experiments, she finds that this receptor does NOT respond to norepinephrine, but does respond to epinephrine. What would be the most appropriate way to categorize the receptor on these cells based on this data?
Beta-2 adrenergic
When discussing basic pharmacology terminology, which of the following has been defined as: ‘any noxious, unintended, & undesired effect that occurs at normal drug doses’?
Adverse drug reaction
Which of the following is a target of the sympathetic nervous system, and is activated by muscarinic ACh receptors? This target is considered the exception to the rule regarding the sympathetic system.
Sweat glands
Anhidrosis (anhydrosis) is a deficiency or absence of sweating. This is of concern since sweating is necessary for cooling and can put patients at risk of hyperthermia. Which of the following drugs lists this condition as one of its more common adverse effects? Hint – think of the target on sweat glands.
Atropine
A patient presents at the ER with difficulty breathing, fluctuating muscle weakness & fatigue. Myasthenia gravis is diagnosed as the cause. Which of the following is considered the mainstay of drug therapy? This drug does not treat the cause of the disease, only the symptoms.
Neostigmine (Prostigmin)
The adrenergic agonists fall into two general chemical classes, the catecholamines & non-catecholamines. Which of the following is FALSE regarding the non-catecholamines?
Includes 'natural' transmitters like dopamine
A patient presents for a follow-up visit after starting on a ‘non-selective’ beta-blocker for primary hypertension & prevention of migraines. Which of the following is this patient most likely taking?
Propranolol (Inderal)
In taking a patient’s history, you notice that they are taking Prazosin (Minipress). What does this medication do?
Blocks alpha-1 receptors
Which of the following drugs is approved for muscle relaxation during general anesthesia, intubation & mechanical ventilation? This compound is considered an intermediate-acting neuromuscular blocker of the second generation of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers.
Pancuronium (Pavulon)
A hiker is brought to the ER after being exposed to massive doses of the insecticide Malathion dumped from an airplane while hiking. He is in a state of cholinergic crisis. Which of the following is a specific antidote for this type of exposure & needs to be administered quickly due to the time-dependent nature of this antidote?
Pralidoxime (Protopam)
A patient is to be treated for his hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It is decided to use a non-selective alpha blocker. Which of the following drugs can block alpha-1 AND alpha-2 adrenergic receptors?
Phentolamine (Regitine)
The ‘indirect-acting anti-adrenergic’ drugs have relatively unusual mechanisms of action. Which one acts as the precursor (building block) of an agonist that is selective for alpha-2 receptors in the brain? Adverse effects for this drug include hepatotoxicity and hemolytic anemia (Coombs’ test).
Methyldopa (Aldomet)
Drugs that affect the PNS can work by different mechanisms of action (MOA). Even though other drugs can be used to treat primary hypertension, reserpine is a treatment that works by a somewhat unique MOA. What is the MOA of reserpine?
Depletion of neurotransmitter from post ganglionic sympathetic neurons
Instructions to a patient taking Clonidine (Catapres) must include a warning NOT to stop taking the drug abruptly. Why? What is likely to happen if the patient stops taking the medication suddenly?
Rebound hypertension
Which of the following is described at their web-site as: ‘a prescription medicine approved to help control asthma in adults and children as young as 12 months and to help relieve the symptoms of indoor and outdoor allergies (outdoor allergies in adults and children as young as 2 years, and indoor allergies in adults and children as young as 6 months)?
Montelukast (Singulair)
An elder patient presents for a check-up on the management of his asthma. You discover that he is using a methylxanthine for his chronic asthma. You explain that use of this medication has declined sharply, largely because we now have safer and more effective drugs. Which drug is it?
Theophylline (Theolair-SR, others)
A patient is brought to the ER following a botany class field trip. The instructor of the course says that he was told that the patient ate several mushrooms including those of the Inocybe and Clitocybe species. The patient’s symptoms include profuse salivation, tearing, bradycardia and hypotension. According to the text, what is considered the ‘direct and specific’ treatment for this patient?
Atropine
Which of the following is the oldest of the non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers? It is considered the prototype of the first class of non-depolarizing blockers (Class I) and is one of several active compounds found in an arrow tip poison used for hunting by South American Indians.
Tubocurarine
A 45-year-old patient complains of occasional “heart-burn” or “upset stomach”. He would like to try some ‘over-the-counter’ (OTC) medications, but has concerns. He reveals that he does not want to experience what happened to his friend. Specifically, he does NOT want to take the medication that can cause his breasts to enlarge. Which of the following most likely caused this in his friend?
Cimetidine (Tagamet)
Which of the following is an anti-emetic that is highly effective against the vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. This drug is even more effective when combined with a glucocorticoid such as dexamethasone. This drug blocks type 3 serotonin receptors (5HT3) on the afferent vagal nerve.
Ondansetron (Zofran)
Which of the following would NOT be considered a factor in determining the intensity of a response to a prescribed dose? These factors are outlined in Figure #1-1.
a) Patient adherence
b) Absorption
c) Metabolism
d) Genetic variables
e) Drug interactions
f) Medication errors
g) ALL COULD BE CONSIDERED A FACTOR
There are different types of drug names. The text discusses the different names associated with one drug: (N-acetyl-para-aminophenol) and (Acetaminophen) and (Tylenol or Tempra or Feverall). Which of the following best describes Acetaminophen?
Generic name
Of the commonly used routes of administration, which one is unique in that there are minimal barriers to absorption and distribution? However, disadvantages include high cost, inconvenience, fluid overload and risk of embolism.
Intravenous
A scientist in a drug-discovery laboratory is testing Compound X on a line of cells with adrenergic beta receptors expressed on their surface. These cells display typical responses to epinephrine (threshold responses, ‘S-shaped’ dose response curves, a plateau phase at high concentrations, etc.). By itself, Compound X has the same threshold dosage and a similar dose response curve. However, at higher concentrations the maximal response evoked by Compound X is always less than epinephrine. How would Compound X be best described?
Partial agonist
Which of the following is formally defined as a nearly unavoidable secondary drug effect produced at therapeutic doses? Common examples include drowsiness by traditional antihistamines and gastric irritation caused by aspirin.
Side effect
Decreased responsiveness can be observed with repeated drug administration. Of the following, which is normally associated with long-term administration & involves an alteration of target/drug interaction?
Pharmacodynamic tolerance
Which of the following would be considered a ‘selective’ agonist for the cholinergic receptor on skeletal muscle?
Nicotine
Which of the following drugs can be used for urinary retention, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) & postoperative distention? Caution must be exercised in using this drug for ileus, because of potential damage to the intestine if the blockage is a physical vs. physiological block.
Bethanechol
Echothiophate is a medication, Malathion is a pesticide and Tabun is a ‘nerve agent’. What do these compounds have in common?
Organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors
We discussed drugs that block nicotinic cholinergic transmission. These included neuromuscular blocking agents and ganglionic blocking agents. Which of the following blocks nAChRs in autonomic ganglia and is used to lower blood pressure?
Mecamylamine (Inversine)
One of the adverse effects associated with the use of Epinephrine (Adrenalin) is the necrosis (cell death) of epithelial cells following ‘leakage’ of the drug during/following an injection. What is the clinical term for this ‘leakage’?
Extravasation
Advair Diskus is a combination drug (Fluticasone & Salmeterol) used for maintenance therapy for Step 3 or Step 4 asthma. Which two classes of drugs is Advair Diskus?
Glucocorticoid and Beta-2 agonist
It is decided that a patient is to be prescribed a beta blocker to treat cardiovascular symptoms. However the patient still would like to be able to use her fast acting beta-2 agonist for asthma. Which of the following would be the most appropriate medication?
Metoprolol (Lopressor, others)
Aminosalicylates, glucocorticoids & immunosuppressants are most commonly used to treat:
Inflammatory Bowel Disease