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85 Cards in this Set

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onset 30 min to 1 hr
short-acting
onset 1 to 2 hrs
intermediate-acting
onset 4 to 8 hrs
long-acting
peak 2 to 4 hrs
short-acting
peak 6 to 12 hrs
intermediate-acting
peak 14 to 20 hrs
long-acting
duration 6 to 8 hrs
short-acting
duration 18 to 24 hrs
intermediate-acting
duration 24 to 36 hrs
long-acting
normal blood glucose
60 to 100 mg/dl
normal serum glucose
70 to 110 mg/dl
a chronic disease resulting from deficient glucose metabolism; is caused by insufficient insulin secretion from the beta cells, is a disorder of the pancreas
diabetes mellitus
hyperglycemia range
>250 mg/dl
hyopoglycemia range
<60 mg/dl
classic sx's (3 p's) of diabetes mellitus
polyuria (increased urine output)
polydipsia (incresed thirst)
polyphagia (increased hunger)
h/a
light-headedness
nervousness
apprehension
tremor
excess perspiration
cold, clammy skin
tachycardia
slurred speech
memory lapse
confusion
seizures
hypoglycemia
extreme thirst
polyuria
fruity breath odor
kussmaul breathing (deep, rapid, labored, distressing, dyspnea)
rapid, thready pulse
dry mucous membranes
poor skin turgor
hyperglycemia
cultural occurrences of diabetes mellitus in the 45 to 65 age group that have hight incidences than whites
african americans
native americans
hispanics
6 criterias for using oral hypoglycemic agents
-onset of diabetes mellitus at age 40 years or older
-dx of diabetes for <5 years
-normal weight or overweight
-fasting blood glucose =<200 mg/dl
-<40 units of insulin required per day
-normal renal and hepatic function
what are hyperglycemic agents used for
to increase blood sugar
a disorder indicated by a decresed t4 level and a normal or elevated TSH level
thyroid disorder
an increase in circulating t4 and t3 levels, which results from an overactive thyroid gland or excessive output of thyroid hormones from one or more thyroid nodules
hyperthyroidism
the most common type of hyperthyroidism caused by the hyperfunction of the thyroid gland; also call thyrotoxicosis
grave's disease
influenced by ACTH, which is released from the anterior pituitary gland; affect carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism as well as muscle and blood cell activity
glucocorticoids
the second type of corticosteroid that secretes aldosterone
mineralocorticoids
reaction caused when more insulin is administered than is needed for glucose metabolism
hypoglycemic reaction or insulin shock
never give this rx in the arm
symlin
called the master gland because it secretes hormones that stimulate the release of other hormones from the target glands (including the thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals and gonads)
pituitary gland
controls the synthesis and release of hormones from the thyroid, adrenals and ovaries
anterior pituitary gland
enhance insulin secretion, delay gastric emptying and decrease food intake
incretin mimetics
gland located anterior to the trachea and has 2 lobes that secretes T4 and T3
thyroid gland
lie on the dorsal surface of the thyroid gland and secretes parathormone which regulates calcium levels in the blood
parathyroid gland
located at the top of each kidney and releases the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine and is linked with the sympathetic nervous system
adrenal glands
located to the left of and behind the stomach; is both an exocrine (secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum) and endocrine which has cell clusters call islets of langerhans
pancreas
hormones produced by the neurohypophesis
ADH (vasopressin)
oxytocin
a group of antidiabetics chemically related to sulfonamides but lacking antibacterial activity, stimulate the beta cells to secrete more insulin
sulfonylureas
affect the hepatic and GI production of glucose
nonsulfonylureas
rx used for emergency hypoglycemic rx, acute tx of beta-blocker overdose and profound (insulin) shock
glucagon
rx used to tx chronic hypoglycemia caused by hyperinsulinism because of islet cell cancer or hyperplasia; hypotension usu does not occur; not indicated for hypoglycemia rxs
diazoxide (Proglycem)
rx improves glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes; not a substitute for insulin and should not be administered to pts with type 1 diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, severe renal dysfunction or severe GI disease
exenatice (Byetta)
rx for adults with type 1 and 2 diabetes; primary purpose is to improve postprandial glucose control in pts who are using insulin but are unable to achieve and maintain glucose control; never give in the arm
pramlintide acetate (Symlin)
hormones produced by the adenohypophesis
thyroid-stimulating (TSH)
adrenocorticotropc (ACTH)
donadotropins (follicle-stimulating) FSH
luteinizing (LH)
growth (GH)
prolactin (PL)
melanocyte-stimulating (MSH)
somatropin (Humatrope)
anterior pituitary agent
growth hormone
octreotide (Sandostatin)
anterior pituitary agent
growth hormone
levothyroxine sodium (Synthroid)
thryoid replacement for hypothyroidism
liothyronine (Cytomel)
thyroid replacement for hypothyroidism
methimazole (Tapazole)
antithyroid rx for hyperthyroidism
propylthiouracil (PTU)
antithyroid rx for hyperthyroidism
calcitrol (Rocaltrol)
parathyroid hormone used to tx hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia
calcitonin
parathyroid hormone used to tx hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia
glucocorticoids
mineralocorticoids
adrenal hormones
prednisone (Deltasone)
adrenal hormones
intermedate-acting glucocorticoids
hydrocortisone (Cortef)
adrenal hormones
short-acting glucocorticoids
fludrocortisone (Florinef)
adrenal hormones
mineralocorticoids
vasopressin (Pitressin)
posterior pituitary agent
ADH
desmopressin (DDAVP)
ADH
lispro (Humalog)
rapid-acting insulin
regular (Humulin R)
rapid-acting insulin
NPH insulin
intermediate-acting insulin
Humulin N
intermediate-acting insulin
glargine (Lantus)
newer long-acting insulin
humulin 70/30
combination insulin
70% NPH
30% regular
glipizide (Glucotrol)
oral antidiabetic agent
1st generation sulfonylureas
glimepiride (Amaryl)
oral antidiabetic agent
2nd generation sulfonylureas
metformin (Glucophage)
oral antidiabetic agent
nonsulfonylureas
biguanides
acarbose (Precose)
oral antidiabetic agent
alpha-glucoside inhibitor
insulin-enhancing agents
thiazolidinediones
rosiglitazone (Avandia)
oral antidiabetic agent
thiazolidinedione
repaglinide (Prandin)
oral antidiabetic agent
meglitinides
byetta
incretin mimetics
sumlin
incretin mimetics
glucagon
hyperglycemic rx
diazoxide (Proglycem)
hyperglycemic rx
somatropin (Humatrope)
ocetreotide (Sandostatin)
anterior pituitary agents
growth hormones
levothyroxine sodium (Synthroid)
liothyronine (Cytomel)
methimazole (Tapazole)
propylthiouracil (PTU)
thyroid hormones
calcitrol (Rocaltrol)
calcitonin
parathyroid hormones
glucocorticoids
mineralocorticoids
adrenal hormones
prednisone (Deltasone)
hydrocortisone (Cortef)
fludcortisone (Florinef)
adrenal hormones
vasopressin (Pitressin)
desmopressin (DDAVP)
posterior pituitary agents
ADH
sulfonylureas
nonsulfonylureas
biguanides
alpha-glucoside inhibitors
thiazolidinediones
meglitinides
oral antidiabetic agents
glipizide (Glucotrol)
glimepiride (Amaryl)
metformin (Glucophage)
acarbose (Precose)
rosiglitazone (Avandia)
repaglinide (Prandin)
oral antidiabetic agents
Byetta
Symlin
glucagon
diazocide (Proglycem
incretin mimetics
glucagon
diazoxide (Proglycem)
hyperglycemic drugs
a vitamin D analogue that promotes calcium absorption from the gi tract and secretion of calcium from bone to the bloodstream; given for the management of hypocalcemia
calcitriol
a hyperglycemic hormone secreted by the alpha cell of the islets of Langerhans in the pancrease used to to treat insulin-induced hypoglycemia
glucagon