Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Allergic Rhinitis Therapies
-nasal anti-inflammatories
-anticholinergic agents
-leukotriene modifiers
2nd generation antihistamines
Mast cell stabilizer
-cromolyn sodium
intranasal corticosteroids
-bedomethasone dipropionate
-triamcinolone acetonide
Anticholinergic agents
Tx for allergic conjunctivitis
-naphazoline hydrochloride
-cromolyn sodium
Early phase response of allergic rhinitis
-prostaglandin leukotrienes
Lab eval of allergic rhinitis pt
-eosinophils in nasal smear
-RAST testing
When treating allergic rhinitis, what class of drugs has the greatest effect on the greatest number of sxs?
Antihistamine side effects
-anticholinergic effects (dry eye, urinary retention, tachycardia, constipation)
-cardiac (prolonged QT, torsades)
Anticholinergic agent side effects
-nasal dryness
How to Tx intermittent allergic rhinitis sxs:
oral antihistamine (decongestant if necessary)
-intolerance: corticosteroid
How to Tx moderate allergic rhinitis sxs:
intranasal corticosteroid + antihistamine
How to Tx moderate persistent allergic rhinitis sxs:
-corticosteroid + antihistamine-decongestant
How to Tx severe allergic rhinitis sxs:
-corticosteroids + antihistamine-decongestant
T/F: You should administer Abx when treating allergic rhinitis.
Why is budesonide better than citirizine?
-budesonide prevents relapse and can be used periodically to control sxs
How might you tx a STEMI?
-can use apsirin, heparin, BB, nitro, ACEI, or lipid lowering
Mx of Fibrinolytic therapy
-catalyze the cleavage of plasminogen to generate plasmin which breaks to fibrin
What criteria must you meet to use fibrinolytic therapy?
-sxs of ischemia
-ST elevation or BBB
-start 12 hrs of onset of sxs
-<75 yo
Absolute contraindications of fibrinolytic agents
-hemorrhagic stroke
-any stroke w/in a year
-active internal bleeding
-possible aortic dissection
Relative contraindications of fibrinolytic agents
-uncontrolled HTN
-use of anticoagulants
-bleeding diathesis
(more than one of these: becomes absolute)
Fibrinolytic agents
-alteplase (tPA)
-reteplase (rPA)
-tenecteplase (TNK-tPA)
Mx of aspirin
-prevent synthesis of thromboxane A2, so platelet aggregation is inhibited
When monitoring unfractionated heparin, check:
Mx of nitrates
-dilates peripheral and coronary vasculature by inc cGMP and dec MVO2
What is the long term benefit of nitrates?
-there is none, nitrates treat sxs only
Mx of BB
-block the effects of catecholamines on beta receptors
-this dec HR and contractility
What are the long term benefits of BB?
-reduce morbitity
-prevent arrhythmias
When do you use CCB?
-only when BB are contraindicated
When do you use ACEI?
-ST elevation in > 2 ant leads
-ejection fraction < 40%
-sxs of CHF
What are the long term benefits of ACEI?
-decrease morbitity
-prevent neurohormonal remodeling
How do you monitor ACEI?
-S/S of angioedema
When is long term use of warfarin indicated?
-pt unable to take daily aspirin
-LV thrombus
-AFib post MI
-wall motion abn
What type of antiplatelet therapy do you use in NSTEMI?
-GIIbIIIa receptor blockers
Mx of Thienopyridines (clopidogrel and ticlopidine)
-inhibits ADP-induces platelet aggregation
What anticoagulation therapy would you use for tx in NSTEMI?
-LMWH or UFH (but LMWH prefered)
T/F: Thrombolytics have no role in the mgmt of NSTEMI
Mx of ACEI
-inhibit conversion of Ang I to Ang II
-inhibit the breakdown of bradykinin
Absolute contraindications of ACEI
-renal artery stenosis
Side effects of ACEI
-inc'd SCr
When would you use ARBs
-when there is intolerance to ACEI
Mx of ARBs
-blockade of Ang II
Long term benefits of ARBs
-dec mortality
-dec hospitalizations
Contraindications to ARBs
-renal artery stenosis
Side effects of ARBs
-inc SCr
contraindications of BB
-reactive airway disease
-AV block w/o pacemaker
-decompensated HF
-HR <50
-sys BP <90
Side effects of BB
-fluid retention (worsens HF)
-masks hypoglycemia
Aldosterone Antagonists
CI for Aldosterone antagonists
-SCr >2.5
-serum K > 5
Side effects of aldosterone antagonists
-gynecomastia (less with eplerenone)
Mx of diuretics
-inc excretion of fluid and Na
-dec fluid retention
Long term benefits of diuretics
-none, only sxs relief
Side effects of diuretics
-electrolyte abn
Long term benefits of digoxin
-improve sxs
side effects of digoxin
-GI sxs
Do CCB have a role in HF?
ACEI agents
ARB agents
Thiazide diuretic agents
Loop diuretic agents
Optimal level of LDL
Very high level of LDL
optimal level of TC
high level of TC
Mx of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
-inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase to mevalonate causing a dec in biosynthesis of cholesterol (or an inc in the LDL receptor activity)
What do statins do?
-dec LDL
-dec TG
-inc HDL
Side effects of statins
-inc in liver enzymes
absolute CI to statins
-liver disease
relative CI to statins
-niacin, fibrates (inc in myopathy)
Statin agents
Which statin is the most potent? the least?
most: rosuvastatin
least: fluvastatin
Mx of Bile acid resins
-interrupts recycling through enterohepatic recirculation
-hepatic cells convert more cholesterol to bile acid (or inc the synthesis of LDL receptors)
What do bile acid resins do?
-dec LDL
-inc HDL
-may inc TG
side effects of bile acid resins
-GI distress
-dec absorption of other drugs
Absolute CI to bile acid resins
-raised TG >400
relative CI to bile acid resins
-TG >200
Bile acid resin agents
Mx of Niacin
-dec hepatic production of VLDL (which dec LDL production)
What does niacin do?
-dec LDL
-dec TG
-inc HDL
Side effects of niacin
-UGI distress
Niacin agents
-crystalline IR niacin
-niacin SR
-niacin ER
Mx of Fibric acid derivatives
-dec TG by inc lipoprotein lipase activity
What do fibric acids do?
-dec TG
-inc HDL %
-dec LDL (w/NL TG)
-may inc LDL (w/ high TG)
Side effects of fibric acids
-GI sxs
absolute CI of fibric acids
-renal or hepatic disease
Fibric acid agents
Mx Cholesterol absorption inhibitor
-impair absorption of cholesterol at the brush border of the intestine
What do cholesterol absorption inhibitors do?
-dec LDL
-dec TC
-dec TG
-inc HDL
side effects of cholesterol absorption inhibitors
-hypersensitivity rxn
absolute CI to cholesterol absorption inhibitors
-active liver disease
What drugs might be used for a drug induced exercise stress test?
Nitrate agents
-isosorbide dinitrate
-isosorbide mononitrate
Side effects of nitrates
Drug interactions with nitrates
-viagra: drop BP big time
Selective BB agents
Nonselective BB agents
Mx of CCB
-dec MVO2 (vasodilates) which dec contractility and dec HR
Side effects of CCB
-constipation, peripheral edema
-CI to CCB
-AV block w/o pacemaker
-sys HF
-use of BB
DHP CCB agents
NDHP CCB agents
TX of HTN in caucasians
-BB and ACEI
TX of HTN in AA
-diuretics and CCB
TX of HTN in the elderly
-lower initial and maintenance doses
-longer intervals between dose adjustments
Side effects of Thiazide diuretics
-dec K
-dec Mg
-inc Ca
-glucose effects
-Side effects of loop diuretics
-like thiazide except dec Ca
side effects of K-sparing diuretics
-inc K
-gynecomastia by spironolactone
Drug interactions with diuretics
-ACEI: fall in BP, renal insufficiency
(w/ specifically K sparing and ACEI: inc hyperkalemia)
Drug interactions with BB
-decongestants: raise BP
-CCB: sig bradycardia, AV block
-NSAIDS: blunt the antiHTN effects of BB
-thyroid hormones: antagonisitic
-Digoxin: inc bradycardia
Mx of alpha 1 BB
-work like BB but also blocks peripheral a1 receptors (reduces vascular resistence)
Side effects of a1 BB
-sycnope, orhtostasis
Drug interactions with ACEI/ARBs
-NSAIDS: inhibit the antiHTN effects of ACEI
-K sparing: inc risk for hyperkalemia
-lithium: inc risk for toxicity
Mx of a2 inhibitors
-stimulate a2 in the brain to dec symp activity to periphery
-suppresses plasma renin
a2 inhibitor agents
Mx of direct vasodilators
-inc the relaxing factor, dec PVR
-Na and water retention
side effects of direct vasodilators
-lupus like
-relfex tachycardia
tx of tinea corporis, cruris, pedis, versicolor
tinea capitis
-nizoral shampoo
tinea unguium
oral candidiasis
cutaneous cadidiasis
vulvar/vaginal cadidiasis
dry skin
atopic derm (eczema)
seborrheic derm
-selsun lotion on the scalp
-aclovate, on the face
-nizoral if uncontrolled
acne vulgaris
acne rosacea
allergic contact derm
-clamine lotion
-kenalog lotion in Sarna
Miliaria (heat rash)
-triamcinolone in Sarna
Urticaria/ Angioedema
-freeze w/ liquid nitrogen
-limited: enbrel, dovonex
-general: soriatane, rheumatrex
-face: abreva, valtrex
-genital: valtrex
-zoster: prednisone
Herpetic Neuralgia