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15 Cards in this Set

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ultrashort acting barbiturate - highly lipid soluble barbiturate - given to induce general anesthesia
Short to intermediate acting barbiturate
Long-acting barbiturate
classic triad of symptoms caused by barbiturates
respiratory depression, coma, and pinpoint pupils
Pharmacologic effects of barbiturates
CNS depression
Cardiovascular effects
Induction of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes
Therapeutic uses of barbiturates include
Seizure disorders
Induction of anesthesia
Adverse effects to barbiturates
Respiratory depression
Injure developing fetus
Paradoxical excitement
Intensify attacks of acute intermittent porphyria
The sleeping state has two primary divisions:
1)Rapid eye movement (REM)
2)Non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM)
a.I = relatively light sleep – 5%
b.II = relatively light sleep – 50-60%
c.III = deep sleep – 10-20%
d.IV = deep sleep – 10-20%
The drugs of first choice for short-term treatment of insomnia are:
The three benzodiazepine-like drugs
Zaleplon, and eszopiclone
An atypical antidepressant with strong sedative actions (may be used to treat insomnia)
The first-choice drugs for anxiety:
Benzodiazepines (The agents prescribed most frequently are alprazolam [Xanax] and lorazepam [Ativan])
An anxiolytic drug that differs significantly from the benzodiazepines. Buspirone is NOT a CNS depressant.
It is as effective as the benzodiazepines, and has three distinct advantages: 1) it does not cause sedation, 2) it has no abuse potential, and 3) it does not intensify the effects of CNS depressants.
Its major disadvantage is that anxiolytic effects develop slowly: initial responses take a week to appear. For this reason, it is not suitable for PRN use.
Antidepressants approved for treatment of GAD:
Venlafaxine [Effexor XR] is an atypical antidepressant that is effective for both short-term and long-term use
Paroxetine [Paxil] is an SSRI
Escitalopram [Lexapro] is an SSRI
The first-line drugs for panic disorder:
Benzodiazepines The agents used most often are alprazolam [Xanax], clonazepam [Klonopin], and lorazepam [Ativan]. All three drugs provide rapid and effective protection against panic attacks. However, benzodiazepines may cause sedation and physical dependence