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50 Cards in this Set

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Function of the Parasympathetic Nervous System
decrease heart rate
constrict pupils
constrict brochial smooth muscle
empty gastric/bladder/bowels
"house keeping"
Alpha 1
pupil dialation (mydriasis)
vasoconstriction
ejaculation
contract bladder smooth muscle
alpha 2
less clinically significant
nerve terminals
alpha antagonist uses
stop bleeding
decrease nasel congestion
increase blood pressure
pupil dialation
beta 1
beta 2
heart and kidney
increase heart rate
increases force of contraction

Lung-bronchial dialation
uterus-relax
increase glycogenolysis
Uses of beta stim
if had : heart attack
heart failure
shock
Alpha blocker
hypertension
raynaud's (vascular) disease

adverse: hypotension w/movement, nasel congestin, inhib ejac, sodium retention
Beta blocker
decrease heart rate
decrease force of constriciton

adverse: taking off too fast rebound tachycardia
Anticholinergic side effects
Red
Mad
blurred vision
GI slow
dry mouth
stim heart
Cholinergic agonist
bethanechol- urinary retention
pilocarpine- eye drops
adverse: slow cardio, diarhea, brochii spasm
posioning with mushroom use blocker (Atropine)
Cholinergic antagonist
blocks ACh at receptor site
Atropine: increase HR, relax brochi, dialate pupil, CNS excitation
Uses: motion sickness, diarhea
Adverse: anticholinergic effects
poisoning: treat with inhibitor
Cholinergic inhibitor
inhibts breakdown of ACh
uses in alzheimers
uses in Myosino Gravis
Anticholinergic agents
blocks action of ACh
drugs: benstropine, diphenhydramine (benadryl)
anticholinergic side effects
Epinephrine
stim all alpha and beta receptors
uses: anaphalactic shock, ashma, cardiopulmonary arrest
Function of the Sympathetic Nervous System
vasodialtion
pupil diation
heart rate increase
shunting of blood to muscles
dialate brochi
"fight of flight"
Alzheimers Disease
degenorative, neuro, chronic disease
effects older population
Drug: donepezil also for anxiety, depression, agitation
Cholinesterare inhibitor-prevent breakdown ACh slows progression
Parkinson's Disease
Sign and Symptoms
disorder of extrapyramidal tract
neuro disorder
dyskinea,tremors,rigidity,akinesia

inbalance between dopamine and ACh
Parkinson's Drug therapy
increase dopamine:Levodopa/carbodopa=
sinemet
take with food, abnor movement

decrease ACh w/antichoinergic agents: beztropine
Epilepsy S&S
essesive neuron stimulation
seziure partial and general
antiepiletic drugs to: dicharge seizure
supress Ca and sodium
GABA
Epilepsy Drugs
Phenytoin-gingival hyperplasia
Valprolic Acid-monitor liver
Carbamazephine-birth defects
Phenobarbital-promotes sleep
goal 1 drug, no other CNS depressants
GABA
primary neurotrasmitter inhibitor
calming
Muscle Spasm Drug Therapy
analgesic/anti-inflamatory
ibprofen/asprin
centrally acting muscle relaxants:
diazapam/tizanidine
Centrally acting muscle relaxants
how they work
inhibit presynaptic motor neuron
diazepam:through GABA
Tizanidine: agonist action alpha 2
use for local pn, spasm or ROM
adverse: CNS depression, hepatic toxcicity, physical dependence
Drugs for spasticity
spasticity:movement disorder of CNS origin; cerebral palsy, multiple scler.

heighten muscle tone, spasm, loss of dextarity
Baclofen
acts on spinal cord
no direct effect on skeletal muscle
adverse: no antidote, gradual withdrawl, CNS depress, constipation, urinary retention
Diazepam
acts on CNS
mimics action of GABA
adverse: sedation
Dantrolene
suppress release of Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum
use: cerebral palsy, multi sclerosis
adverse: weakness, drowsy, diarhea, hepatic tox
Local Anesthetics
suppress pn by blocking axon conduction
blocks sodium channel, blocks neural function, sensory and motor
adverse: CNS, CV, allergic
What are Esters
procaine (novacaine)
what are amides
lidocane
What are Esters
procaine (novacaine)
Procaine (novocain)
used with epinephrine (delays absorbtion
allergic reactions
What are CNS depressants
barbituates
benzodiazepines
alcohol
general anesthetics
antihistamines
phenothiazines
Analgesic Ladder
1-mild nonopioid analgesic/NSAID
2-more severe add opiod analgesic
3-severe substitute opioid-morphine
Opioid Analgesics
relieves pn w/o loss of conscious
morphine
codeine
antagoinst: naloxone
Morphine
strong opioid analgesic (agonist)
decrese pn, emotional reaction to pn
other:sedation, euphoria,respitory depression,nauseam miosis
6-8 hours oral best
Headaches; acute treatment
NSAIDS, combos w/caffeine
selective seotonin agonists-TRIPTAN
adverse:tingling, dizzy,vertigo, flushing, warm/cold, heavy chest, fatigue
Triptans contraindications
cadiac or cerebrovascular disease
hypersensitivity
use w/in 24 hour other another
Schizophrenia
chronic psychotic illness adolescence
reduced ability to comprehend reality
Clozapine
atypical antipsychotic
blocks dopa and serotonin
fewer EPS sympt
adverse:gain weight, diabetes, antichol
depression therapy's
tricycline
serotonin reuptake inhibitor
atypical antidepressants
electroconvulsive, psychotherapy
Tricyclic
antidepression
blocks reuuptake of NE and 5HT allowing more effects to occur
adverse:antichol,cardiac toxicity, seizues,sedation,lethal (get baseline EKG)
antidote:cholinesterase inhibitor
MAOI
second/third choice depression
adverse: CNS stim,hypotention,drug interations
aviod tyramine rich foods cheese, apple
SSRI
Prozac (Fluxetine), celexa,zoloft,paxil
first choice, safer
Adverse:diarrhea,anorexia,insomnia,sex
Bupropion
atypical antidepressant
response:1-2 wks
adverse:dry mouth, headache,weight loss
increase pot. for seziure
narrow theraputic range, withdrawl
Lithium
bipolar disorder
increase NE uptake/5HT sensitivity
short 1/2 life, toxic
valproic acid (mood stabilizer) given same time (sometimes)
Benzodiazepine
Lorazepam/Diazepam
anxiety,insomnia,seizure,muscle spasm,painc,alcohol withdrawl
increase effect of GABA
adverse:drowsy,confusion,ataxia,abuse,CNS depression, toxic
Barbiturates
phenobarbital (hypnotic, seizure)
long acting
check drug interaction
Amphetamine
CNS stim; release norepi,dopa,inhibits reuptake
adverse:dependence,abuse,dizzy,agitated,palpitations,elevated BP
Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
attention deficit/hyperactivity