Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/85

Click to flip

85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acetylcholine
The primary transmitter in all autonomic ganglia and at the para. postganglionic neuron-effector synapses
Bethanechol
Cholinomimetic agonist that reacts on muscarinic receptors. For postop and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention and activates bowl and bladder smooth muscle
Carbechol
Cholinomimetic direct-acting agonist for glaucoma by activating pupillary sphincter and ciliary muscles of eye
Pilocarpine
Cholinomimetic direct-acting agonist for glaucoma and Sjogren's syndrome by activating pupillary sphinceter and ciliary muscles of eye, stimulates salivation
Edrophonium
Cholinomimetic indirect-acting agonist for MG, reversal of neuromusclar blockade by amplifing endogenous Ach; inc. strength
Neostigmine
Cholinomimetic indirect-acting agonist for MG and reversal of neuromuscular blockade by amplifying Ach; inc. strength (related to pyridostigmine and edrophonium
Physostigmine
Cholinomimetic indirect-acting agonist for glaucoma by amplifying effects of Ach
Pyridostigmine
Chol. indirect-acting agonist for MG and reversal of neuromuscular blockade by amplifying endogenous Ach; inc. strength
Rivastigmine
Treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease
Atropine
Antimuscarinic drug used to produce mydriasis and cycloplegia
Ipratropium
Antimuscarinic drug that causes bronshodilation in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Scopolamine
Antimuscarinic drug used to prevent or reduce motion sickness
Pralidoxime
Cholinesterase regenerator for organophosphate toxicity
Amphetamine
Sympathomimetic for narcolepsy, obesity, attention deficit disorder
Dobutamine
Sympathomimetic catecholamine for shock, heart failure
Dopamine
Sympathomimetic catecholamine for shock, heart failure
Ephedrine
Sympathomimetic for asthma (obsolete), urinary incontinenece, and to cause vasoconstriction in hypotension
Epinephrine
Smpathomimetic catecholamine for anaphylaxis, glauscoma, asthma, and to cause vasoconstriction
Isoproterenol
Sympathomimetic catecholamine for asthma, atrioventricular block (rare)
Methylphenidate
Amphetamine or mild CNS stimulant used for hyperactive disorder
Norepinephrine
Sympathomimetic catecholamine to cause vasoconstriction in hypotension
Phenylephrine
Sympathomimetic to cause mydriasis, vasoconstriction and decongestion
Pseudoephedrine
Available in over-the-counter decongestants
Phenoxybenzamine
Prototypical long-acting, irreversible alpha-blocker, only slightly alpha1 selective
Phentolomine
Competitive, reversible blocking agent alpha-blocking non-selective
Prazosin
Alpha1 selective blocker used in HTN and benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Atenolol
Beta1 selective blocker with low lipid solubility and less CNS effect for HTN
Propanolol
Non-selective beta blocker for local aneshthetic action but no partial agonist effect for HTN, angina, arrhythmias, migraine, hyperthy. and tremor
Timolol
Beta blocker for arrhythmia prophylaxis after MI by reducing automaticity of all cardiac pacemaker; also in glaucoma by dec. secretion of aqueous humor
Clonidine
Alpha2 agonist acts central to recuce SANS outflow, lower BP in HTN and drug dependency
Guanethidine
Sympathomimetic postganglionic neuron blocker by depleting adrenergic nerve terminal of its NEPI and can lower BP
Reserpine
Sympathomimetic postganglionic neuron blocker by depleting adrenergic nerve terminal of its NEPI and can lower BP
Amlodipine
Calcium channel blocker to reduce blood pressure and relieve angina
Diltiazem
Calcium channel blocker for the treatment of angina
Nifedipine
Calcium channel blocker to treat angina
Verapamil
Calcium channel blocker that blocks L-type channels; cardiac dpressant and vasodilator; used in HTN, angina, and arrhythmias
Captopril
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor for HTN, diabetic nephropathy and CHF
Enalpril
Angiotensin antagonist ACE inhibitor
Losartan
Angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker used for HTN; similar to ACE inhibitor with less cough
Acetazolamide
Carbonic anhydrase-inhibiting diuretic actin in the proximal convoluted tubule producing HaHCO3 diuresis resulting in bicarb depletion and self limited; for glaucoma and mountain sickness
Amiloride
K+ sparing diruetic: blocks Na+ channels in cortical collecitng tubules
Chlorothalodone
Thiazide diuretic used to eliminate excess fluid and decrease HTN
Furosemide
Loop diuretic that blocks Na/K/2Cl transporter in thick ascending limb with high effiafy used in acute pulm. edema, hypercal. and HTN
Hydrochlorothiazide
Thiazide diuretic that acts in distal convoluted tubule to block Na/Cl transporter; used in HTN, CHF, nephrolithiasis
Mannitol
Osmotic diuretic for short term for reduction of intracranial pressure or to promote excretion of renal toxins
Spironolactone
Aldosterone receptor antagonist; K-sparing diuretic action in the collecting tublues; used in aldosteronism, HTN, and female hirsutism (androgen blocking action)
Triamterene
K-sparing diuretic that acts by bocking the sodium channels in the same portion of the nephron increases sodium clearance
Ceterizine
Antihistamine may cause drowsiness
Chlorpheniramine
Histamine H1 antagonist, newer first-generation agent with less sedation
Dimenhydrinate
Histamine H1 antagonist used for motion sickness
Diphenhydramine
Antihistamine H1 blocker (first generation): used in hay fever, motion sickness, dystonia and to manage chemo-induce vomiting
Fexofenadine
Second-generation H1 blocker and less lipid soluble with less sedating and autonomic effects
Loratadine
Second-generation H1 antihistamine; used in hay fever
Sumatriptan
5-HT1D receptor agonist used to abort migraine attacks
Dihydroergotamine
Migraine nasal spray
Aspirin
NSAID inhibits COX1 and COX2 irreversibly; antiplatlet agent as well as antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug
Celecoxib
Selective COX2 inhibitor act mainly on enzymes of cells invoved in inflammation; used in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disorders
Ibuprofen
NSAID: reversible inhibitor of cyclooxygenases with analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory actions similar to aspirin, but no low-dose antiplatelet effect
Indomethacin
NSAID: highly potent usually reserved for acute inflammation like gout, not chronic inflamm.
Naproxen
Non-selective NSAID that reveribly inhibits COX1 and COX2 and interfere with arachidonic binding
Etanercept
DMARD: recombinant protein that binds TNF; effective by injection for RA and other severe inflammatory disease
Methotrexate
Antineoplastic, immunosuppressant; cell cycle-specific drug that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
Acetaminophen
Antipyretic analgesic: very weak cyclooxygenase inhibitor; not anti-inflammatory with less GI distress than aspirin, but dangerous overdose
Allopurinal
Antigout: suicide inhibitor of xanthine oxidase; reduces production of uric acid used in gout and adjunctively in cance chemotherapy
Meloxicam
NSAID to relieve pain and stiffness in osteroarthritis
Colchicine
Microtubule assembly inhibitor: reduces mobility and phagocytosis by WBCs in gout-intflammed joints
Probenecid
Uricosuric: inhibitor of renal weak acid seretion and reabsorption in S2 segment of proximal tubule; prolongs half-life of penicillin, accelerates clearance of uric acid used in gout
Sodium salicylate
Carboxylic acid with analgesic properties
Metaprolol
Selective B1 receptor antagonist used to lower blood pressure
Long-acting Nifedipine
Calcium channel blocker useful in the management of HTN
Atorvastatin
HMG co-A reductase inhibitor powerful anti-lipidemic medication
Theophylline
a methylxanthine derivative useful in the management of COPD
Combivent
contains albuterol (beta adrenergic agonist) and ipratropium (muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist usefu in the treatment of COPD as bronchodilator
Prednisone
a orticosterioid man uses here utilized to treat the inflammation resultant from COPD and osteoarthritis
Ranitidine
and H2 histamine receptor antagonist useful for the treatment of non-ulcer dyspepsia
Mylanta
an antacid usful for the treatment of non-ulcer dyspepsia
Diazepam
a benzodiazepine useful in the treatment of insominia
Ciprofloxacin
penetrates the prostate gland and therefore is effective in bacterial prostatitis, whereas most antibiotics do not enter the prostate and are therefore ineffective in prostatities
Penicillin
actively transported into the proximal tublues and is therfore repidly exreted by the kidneys
Raloxifene
for treatment of osteroporosis in post-menapausal women is transported by the liver into the intestines where it is reabsorbed therefore it last a long time in the body
PGE2
vasodilatation, pain sensitization, gastric cytoprotection
PGF2
Bronchoconstriction, uterine contraction
PGI2
inhibit platelet aggregation, gastric cytoprotection
TxA2
Platelet aggregation
COX1
GI cytoprtection, platelet activity and renal function