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55 Cards in this Set

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Cyclophosphamide: side effects
Bone marrow suppression; hemorrhagic cystitis
Cyclophosphamide: class
DNA cross-linker; non specific phase
Cyclophosphamide: used to treat
Breast cancer
Nitrogen mustard drug
Cyclophosphamide
Cyclophosphamide: metabolite
Acolein
Two drugs that inhibit thymidylate synthase
Methotrexate

Fluorouracil
Drug given with methotrexate to allow purine synthesis
Leucovorin
Methotrexate: mechanism
Competitive inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase-->decreased protein synthesis

Inhibition of dihydrofolate-->no carbon moieties for thymidylate synthase-->dUMP can't be converted to dTMP-->pyrimidine shortage

Inhibition of dihydrofolate -->no substrates for purine synthesis
Methotrexate: side effects
Bone marrow suppression
Fluorouracil: class
Pyrimidine analog, non specific phase
Methotrexate: class
Folic acid analog, S specific phase
Fluorouracil: treatment
Solid tumors: breast, colon, stomach, NOT LEUKEMIA
Flurouracil: mechanism
Incorporates into DNA and RNA to cause strand breaks

Prevents ribosomal processing

Inhibits thymidylate synthase
Fluorouracil: side effects
Bone marrow suppression
Non hormonal cancer drugs without bone marrow suppression side effect
Bleomycin (pulmonary toxicity)

Cisplatin (renal toxicity)

Paclitaxel (neutropenia)
Mercaptopurine: class
Purine analog, S phase specific
Mercaptopurine: mechanism
Incorporation causes DNA strand breaks; inhibits RNA synthesis

Feedback inhibition in purine biosynthesis-->inhibits AMP synthesis at first and last step
Doxorubin: side effects
Bone marrow suppression and cardiac toxicity
Paclitaxel: class
Mitosis inhibitor
Paclitaxel: treatment
Prostate cancer
Paclitaxel: mechanism
Binds to and freezes tubulin-->alter formation of microtubulin and mitotic spindle-->cell is arrested in G2 or M phase
Drug used with cyclophosphamide to prevent hemorrhagic cystitis
MESNA
Cisplatin: class
DNA cross linker; non specific phase
Bleomycin: class
DNA cleaving drug; M or G2 phase
Doxorubin: class
DNA cleaving drug; non specific phase
Bleomycin: mechanism
Cleaves DNA by free radicals
Why is there pulmonary toxicity with Bleomycin?
No amino hydrolase to inactivate the drug
Doxorubin: mechanism
DNA cleaving by freezing topoisomerase II with free radicals
Doxorubin: treatment
Breast and prostate cancer
Why is there cardiac toxicity with Doxorubin?
Low level of catalase in the heart to inactivate superoxide anions.

Heart also has high levels of flavin centered reductases that activate doxorubin
Hormonal drugs used in breast cancer
Tamoxifen

Raloxifene

Fulvestrant

Letrozole (femara)
Chemotherapy drugs for breast cancer
Doxorubin

Fluorouracil

Cyclophosphamide/Ifosfamide

Herceptin
Gleevec and Tykerb can be given to pregnant patients. True or false.
False
Gleevec: mechanism
Inhibits bcr-abl, PDGF, kit tyrosine kinases

Also binds to intracellular ATP binding site
Tykerb: mechanism
Inhibits EGFR type 1 and 2

Also binds to intracellular ATP binding site
Herceptin: mechanism
Monoclonal antibody that inhibits p185, gene product of HER2
Herceptin: treatment
Breast cancer
Herceptin: side effects
Cardiac failure manifesting in CHF and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction
Hormonal drugs used in prostate cancer
Aminoglutethimide

Leuprolide

Flutamide

DES
Methotrexate: uses
Osteosarcoma and non-Hodgkins lymphoma
Paclitaxol: side effects
Neutropenia

Asymptomatic bradycardia

Alopecia
Aminoglutethimide: mechanism
Inhibits conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone -->blocks first step of adrenal androgen production-->prevent testosterone synthesis
Leuprolide: mechanism
Desensitize GnRH receptor-->inhibit LH and FSH production
Leuprolide: side effects
Bone pain

Loss of libido
Flutamide: mechanism
Blocks binding of androgen to receptor
Flutamide: side effects
Osteoporosis

Decreased libido
Diethylstilbestrol: mechanism
Feedback inhibition of LH and FSH-->lower testicular androgen production
Prednisone: class
Corticosteroid suppression
Prednisone: mechanism
Bind to glucocorticoid receptor-->induce synthesis of caspase-->apoptosis
Prednisone: side effects
Acute tumor lysis syndrome

Hyperadrenocorticism
What is given with Cisplatin to reduce renal toxicity?
Saline
Cisplatin preferentially binds to what nucleotide?
Guanine
What mechanism activates Bleomycin?
Microsomal reduction
Letrozole: mechanism
Inhibits aromatase from producing estrogens in extra-adrenal tissues
Fulvestrant: mechanism
Binds ER receptor and induces down regulation