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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
butoxamine sites and actions
beta 2 antagonist; no clinical application
esmolol sites and action
short half-life (10 min.) beta blocker for acute issues (supraventricular arryhthmias, perioperative hypertension, myocardial ischemia)
labetolol and carvedilol actions and sites
mixture of alpha and beta blocking, with less tachycardia than other alpha blockers
pindolol, acebutolol, carteolol, celiprolol, penbutolol actions and sites
beta blockers with partial beta agonist activity to offset bradycardia and lipid abnormalities associated with beta 2 blockers
betaxolol action and sites
beta 1 selective, treats glaucoma without risk of systemic beta 2 bronchoconstriction
timolol actions and sites
nonselective beta blocker; ocular hypotensive effects
nadolol actions and sites
beta blocker with long duration of action
metoprolol and atenolol actions and sites
beta 1 moderately selective; better for asthmatics, diabetics and PVD
propanolol action and sites
prototype beta blocker, nonselective; no alpha-antagonism; high lipid solubility, membrane stabilizine effects, no intrinisic activity
metabolic effects of beta blockers
carb metabolism (beta 2), may blunt hypoglycemic symptoms (avoid use in diabetes); beta 3 lipolysis effect blunted
beta antagonist effects on eye
decrease aqueous humor production
respiratory effects of beta 2 antagonists
increased airway resistance, precipitation of asthma
CV effects of beta antagonists
decrease CO, BP, increase sodium retention => edema formation
treats sexual dysfunction
phentolamine orally in women; papaverine locally in men, but better to use sildenafil, prostaglandins and apomorphine; yohimbine maybe useful, but no evidence
treats urinary obstruction in preop prostatic hypertrophy and bladder neck hypertonous following spinal injury
terazosin
treats PVD and Reynaud's (alpha antagonist and calcium channel blockers)
phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine, tolazoline (alpha antagonists); calcium channel blockers now preferred
treats chronic hypertension (alpha 1)
prazosin, doxazosin
treates hypertensive emergency (in pheochromocytoma, sympathomimetic overdose, clonidine withdrawal)
phentolamine
Treats pheochromocytoma
phenoxybenzamine and phentolamine
tamsulosin
competitive alpha 1 antagonist
doxazosin
alpha 1 antagonist with long half life 22 h; treats BPH
terazosin
selective alpha 1 antagonist (reversible) for hypertension and BPH
prazosin
selective alpha 1 antagonist -- relaxation of smooth and arterial/venous muscle
tolazoline sites and effects
non-selective alpha antagonist, similar phentolamine, used in newborns with pulmonary hypertension
phenoxybenzamine sites and action
nonspecific alpha antagonist: same as phentolamine, except non-competitive, i.e. irreversible; major use -- pheochromocytoma
phentolamine sites and action
nonselective alpha antagonist: reduces PVR, increases HR (reflex), stimulates muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, reversible
tyramine actions and sites
special sympathomimetics: indrect sympathomimetic action, enters uptake 1 and releases stored catecholamines; MAO inhibitors magnify effect
cocaine actions and sites
special sympathomimetics: blocks uptake 1, inhibiting dopamine reuptake
pseudoephedrine
mixed-acting sympathomimetics: OTC decongestant, stress incontinence in women
ephedrine actions and sites
mixed-acting sympathomimetics: release of stored catecholamines (non-selective); effects similar to epinephrine; mild stimulant
phenylpropanolamine
mixed-acting sympathomimetics: OTC weight reduction (risk of hypertension and damage to target organs)
pseudoephedrine action and sites
indirect-acting sympathomimetic: decongestant OTC and female stress incontinence
ephedrine sites and action
indirect-acting sympathomimetic: phytochemical, high bioavailibility orally, long duration of action; releasing stored catecholamines with epinephrine-like effects. Used as decongestant and pressor (used for hypotension in spinal anesthesia)
phenylpropanolamine
indirect-acting sympathomimetic: OTC weight loss meds, weak mood effect at low dose; BP increase and target organ damage at high dose
mixed-acting sympathomimetics
phenylpropanolamine, ephedrine, pseudophedrine
indirect acting sympathomimetics:
amphetamine, methamphetamine, phenmetrazine, methylphenidate, pemoline
pemoline sites and actions
Indirect acting sympathomimetic: similar to amphetamine
methylphenidate sites and actions
Indirect acting sympathomimetic: similar to amphetamine; this is ritalin for ADHD in kids
phenmetrazine action and sites
Indirect acting sympathomimetic: similar to amphetamine
methamphetamine action and sites
Indirect acting sympathomimetic: similar amphetamine with higher ratio of CNS to PNS actions
amphetamine action and sites
Indirect acting sympathomimetic: increases the release of norepinephrine and dopamine, especially in CNS; marked elevation of mood, alertness; appetite suppressant
indirect acting sympathomimetics action
enhance synaptic catecholamine levels by facilitating release and/or inhibiting reuptake; metabolized more slowly than catecholamines; most cross blood brain barrier with significant CNS effects
BRL37344 action and sites
Beta 3, being developed to decrease lipocyte mass in obesity