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12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
- higher gut [ ] may cause steeper increase, but lower bioaval.
- distributes easily to all tissues
- Metabolism is zero order (fixed unit per time)
Alcohol is metabolized by
- alcohol dehydrogenase adn acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
- CNS most sensitive to ethanol
- mainly depresses
- stimulant effects due to depression of inhibitory control mechanisms
- high [ ] cause general anesthesia
- contraindicated in epilepsy and withdrawl may cause seizures
- enhancement of CNS depression occurs with sedatives, hypnotics or tranquilizers
Local effects
- good topical antiseptic
- effective against gram neg and pos
- not effective against spores, fungi, certain viruses
Respiration and GE effects
- Resp = ventilatory response to CO2 is depressed, this can be dangerous
- GI = increase in gastric juices, contraindicated in peptic ulcer
Kidney and liver effects
- diruetic effect
- accumulation of fat in liver = increased NADH/NAD ratio, mobilization of fat from peripheral tissues
Tolerance of ETOH
- metabolic = minor, inducible enyzmes, this may cause cross tolerance in other drugs
- Functional = nerve cells adapt to continued presence
- Behavioral = functioning socially
Dependence to ETOH
- Physical = yes- abstinece syndrome
- Psycho = yes, feel they need it, purposeful behavior
fetal alcohol syndrome
- Pre - Postnatal growth retardation
- Low IQ
- Facial abnormalities
- can't be fixed/reversed
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
- paralysis of external eye muscles, ataxia,altered mentals status
- give thiamin supplements
Alcoholism is
- pattern of tolerance, physical dependence, withdrawl avoidance
Tx of Alcoholism
Acute: prevent respiratory failure
Benzodiazepines used to "taper off"
Chronic: behavioral modification, Disulfiram - makes them get sick if they drink
- Opiate antagonist: naltrexone