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156 Cards in this Set

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Azathioprine: class?
cytotoxic immunosuppressive
Azathioprine: mechanism?
converted to 6-MP, interferes with de novo purine synth; salvage pathway of purines
Azathioprine: counterindications?
thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) deficiency, likely drug toxicity
Azathioprine: chemistry?
purine analogs
Azathioprine: prodrug??
yes
Azathioprine: side effects?
*myelotoxicity*, low CBC counts, pancreatitis
6-mercaptopurine: class?
cytotoxic immunosuppressive
6-mercaptopurine: counterindications?
thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) deficiency, likely drug toxicity
6-mercaptopurine: chemistry?
purine analogs
6-mercaptopurine: prodrug??
no
Mycophenolate Mofetil: class?
cytotoxic immunosuppressive
Mycophenolate Mofetil: mechanism?
inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, de novo purine synthesis enzyme
Mycophenolate Mofetil: counterindications?
risk factors for toxicity: cumulative dose, obesity, alcohol use.
Mycophenolate Mofetil: prodrug??
no
Methotrexate: class?
cytotoxic immunosuppressive
Methotrexate: prodrug??
no
Cyclophosphamide: class?
cytotoxic immunosuppressive
Cyclophosphamide: mechanism?
alkylating agent
Cyclophosphamide: prodrug??
no
Cyclophosphamide: side effects?
hemorrhagic cystitis, other bad shit
Cyclosporine: class?
calcineurin inhibitors; selective for T lymphocytes
Cyclosporine: mechanism?
inhibit T cell calcineurin
Cyclosporine: chemistry?
complex cyclic fungal polypeptide that is extremely lipophilic
Cyclosporine: metabolism?
Liver-CYP 3A, many drug interactions
Tacrolimus: class?
calcineurin inhibitors, selective for T lymphocytes
Tacrolimus: mechanism?
inhibit T cell calcineurin
OKT3®: class?
anti CD3 antibody
OKT3®: mechanism?
binds to CD3 on T cells
Prostaglandins : chemistry?
arachidonic acid derivative
Prostaglandins : strongest platelet aggregator?
PGI2
Thromboxane A2 : metabolism?
spontaneous degradation
Prostaglandin I2: metabolism?
spontaneous degradation
zileuton : mechanism?
inhibitor of the 5-lipoxygenase
zileuton : indications?
asthma
Misoprostol : class?
synthetic PGE1
Misoprostol : mechanism?
synthetic PGE1
Misoprostol : counterindications?
contraindicated during pregnancy. (uterine contractions)
Aspirin: class?
NSAID
Aspirin: mechanism?
acetylates cyclooxegenase; hits platelets harder than tissue (low dose)
Aspirin: counterindications?
kids (reye's syndrome)
Indomethacin: class?
NSAID
Indomethacin: indications?
acute attack of gouty arthritis---aspirin is contraindicated because of the inhibitory effects of aspirin on uric acid excretion.
Indomethacin: side effects?
CNS toxicity, headache, dizzyness, psychosis
celecoxib: class?
Cox2 inhibitor
rofecoxib: class?
Cox2 inhibitor
ibuprofen,: class?
NSAID
Diphenhydramine (benadryl) : class?
H1 competitive antagonist
Diphenhydramine (benadryl) : chemistry?
tertiary amines
Terfenadine* Seldane®: class?
Second-Generation H1 blockers (non-sedating antihistamine
Terfenadine* Seldane®: mechanism?
1st pass metab to -COOH H1 blocker. No CNS entranfce
Terfenadine* Seldane®: side effects?
torsades de pointes from unmetabolized drug
fexofenadine (fexofenadine): class?
Second-Generation H1 blockers (non-sedating antihistamine
fexofenadine (fexofenadine): mechanism?
1st pass metab to -COOH H1 blocker. No CNS entranfce
Loratididine (Claritin): class?
Second-Generation H1 blockers (non-sedating antihistamine
Loratididine (Claritin): mechanism?
1st pass metab to -COOH H1 blocker. No CNS entranfce
Desloratadine (Clarinex): class?
Second-Generation H1 blockers (non-sedating antihistamine
Desloratadine (Clarinex): mechanism?
1st pass metab to -COOH H1 blocker. No CNS entranfce
ranitidine (Zantac®): class?
H2 receptor antagonist
ranitidine (Zantac®): indications?
anti ulcer
cimetidine (Tagamet®): class?
H2 receptor antagonist
cimetidine (Tagamet®): indications?
anti ulcer
cimetidine (Tagamet®): dangerous interactions?
binds to cytochrome P-450 system, decreasing warfarin, theophylline and phenytoin metabolism
Famotidine : class?
H2 receptor antagonist
Cromolyn (Intal®): indications?
prophylactic tx of asthma
Albuterol: class?
beta2 blocker
Albuterol: mechanism?
fast onset beta 2 blocker
Albuterol: indications?
acute tx asthma
Salmeterol: class?
beta2 blocker
Salmeterol: mechanism?
slow onset beta 2 blocker
Salmeterol: indications?
chronic tx of asthma
(theophylline) : class?
Methylxanthines
(theophylline) : mechanism?
inhibits adenosine binding to adenosine receptors
(theophylline) : indications?
chronic tx of asthma
ipratropium bromide: class?
Muscarinic cholinergic antagonist
ipratropium bromide: indications?
chronic tx of asthma
Zileuton (Zyflo®) : class?
Inhibitors of 5-Lipoxygenase and products
Zileuton (Zyflo®) : mechanism?
inhibitor of human 5-Lipoxygenase
Zileuton (Zyflo®) : indications?
chronic tx of asthma
Zafirlukast (Accolate®) : class?
Inhibitors of 5-Lipoxygenase and products
Zafirlukast (Accolate®) : mechanism?
inhibitor of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor for LTD4
Zafirlukast (Accolate®) : indications?
chronic tx of asthma
Montelukast (Singulair®): class?
Inhibitors of 5-Lipoxygenase and products
Montelukast (Singulair®): mechanism?
leukotriene receptor antagonist
Montelukast (Singulair®): indications?
chronic tx of asthma
meprazole (Prilosec®): class?
H+/K+-ATPase inhibitor
meprazole (Prilosec®): indications?
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
meprazole (Prilosec®): chemistry?
substituted benzimidazoles (weak bases) that are lipid soluble molecules
misoprostol, Cytotec®): class?
prostaglandin
misoprostol, Cytotec®): mechanism?
Prostaglandins of the E and I groups inhibit acid secretion by acting on the parietal cell
Mg(OH)2: mechanism?
antiacid; osmotic laxative
Mg(OH)2: side effects?
diarrhea
Al (OH)3 : mechanism?
antiacid
Al (OH)3 : side effects?
constipation
Calcium carbonate: mechanism?
antiacid
Sucralfate : mechanism?
increases mucosal defense against acid; maybe
Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto bismol®, Kaopectate® liquid): mechanism?
increases mucosal defense against acid
Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto bismol®, Kaopectate® liquid): indications?
GERD; diarrhea
Metoclopramide : class?
Prokinetic Gastrointestinal Drug
Metoclopramide : mechanism?
opamine antagonist; 5-HT3 antagonist
Metoclopramide : indications?
GERD; gastroparesis; intestinal pseudo-obstruction
Cisapride : class?
Prokinetic Gastrointestinal Drug
Cisapride : mechanism?
5-HT4 agonist; 5-HT3 antagonist
Cisapride : indications?
GERD; gastroparesis; intestinal pseudo-obstruction
Cisapride : side effects?
torsades de pointes
Erythromycin : class?
Prokinetic Gastrointestinal Drug
Erythromycin : mechanism?
motilin agonist
Erythromycin : indications?
nondigestible solid stasis; inestinal pseudo-obstruction
Loperamide (Imodium®) : class?
antidhiarrheal; phenylpiperidine analgesic analog
Loperamide (Imodium®) : mechanism?
opiate agonist
Loperamide (Imodium®) : indications?
diarrhea
Loperamide (Imodium®) : counterindications?
infectious diarrhea, impedes passage of bugs
Lomotil® (diphenoxylate and atropine): class?
antidiarrehal
Lomotil® (diphenoxylate and atropine): mechanism?
opiate agonist adn atropine (to discourage abuse, damn)
Cholestyramine and Colestipol: class?
bile acid binders
Cholestyramine and Colestipol: mechanism?
decrease diarrhea induction by bile acids
Octreotide (Sandostatin®): class?
antisecretory antidiarrheal
Octreotide (Sandostatin®): indications?
severe refractory secretory diarrhea
Bisacodyl (Dulcolax®): class?
Contact Laxatives
Bisacodyl (Dulcolax®): mechanism?
stimulates enteric nerves to cause colonic mass movement.
Bisacodyl (Dulcolax®): indications?
constipation
Castor Oil - from seeds of Ricinus communis : class?
Contact Laxatives
Castor Oil - from seeds of Ricinus communis : mechanism?
stimulates fluid and water secretion
Castor Oil - from seeds of Ricinus communis : indications?
constipation
Docusate : class?
Contact Laxatives
Docusate : mechanism?
increase NaCl secretion via cAMP
Docusate : indications?
constipation
Mineral Oil: class?
Lubricant Laxative
Mineral Oil: indications?
constipation
magnesium citrate: class?
Osmotic Laxatives
magnesium citrate: indications?
constipation
polyethylene glycol,: class?
Osmotic Laxatives
polyethylene glycol,: indications?
constipation
Sodium phosphate (Fleets® Phosphosoda): class?
Osmotic Laxatives
Sodium phosphate (Fleets® Phosphosoda): indications?
constipation
Lactulose : class?
non absorbable sugar
Lactulose : mechanism?
acidifies colon, traps amines for excretion
Metronidazole (Flagyl®): class?
spectrum-gram neg anaerobes antibiotic
Metronidazole (Flagyl®): indications?
bacterial overgrowth of GI (esp w/ crohn's)
Metronidazole (Flagyl®): counterindications?
pregnancy
Sulfasalazine (SAZ, Azulfadine®),: class?
antiobiotic and 5-ASA
Sulfasalazine (SAZ, Azulfadine®),: mechanism?
5-ASA antiinflam??
Sulfasalazine (SAZ, Azulfadine®),: indications?
Inflammatory Bowel Syndrome
Sulfasalazine (SAZ, Azulfadine®),: side effects?
disulfiram-like rx; teratogen
5-ASA : class?
Sulfasalazine/5-ASA Family
5-ASA : mechanism?
5-ASA antiinflam??
5-ASA : indications?
Inflammatory Bowel Syndrome
5-ASA : side effects?
renal toxicity
Asacol®: class?
Sulfasalazine/5-ASA Family
Asacol®: mechanism?
5-ASA antiinflam??
Asacol®: indications?
Inflammatory Bowel Syndrome
Pentasa®: class?
Sulfasalazine/5-ASA Family
Pentasa®: mechanism?
5-ASA antiinflam??
Pentasa®: indications?
Inflammatory Bowel Syndrome
Olsalazine (Dipentum®): class?
Sulfasalazine/5-ASA Family
Olsalazine (Dipentum®): mechanism?
5-ASA antiinflam??
Olsalazine (Dipentum®): indications?
Inflammatory Bowel Syndrome