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14 Cards in this Set

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Immunosuppressant drugs interfere with the production or function of immune cells and ___________
Cytokines
Autoimmune disorders occur when a persons immune system loses its ability to differentiate between _________ and its own cells.
Antigens
Autoantigens for some disorders have been identified as specific ___________ and are found in affected tissues.
Proteins
Allergic asthma, Crohns disease psoriasis psoriatic arthritis and RA are inflammatory disorders that may be treated with ________ drugs.
Immunosupprssant
Although many factor affect graft survival including the degree of matching between donor tissues and recipient tissues drug induced __________ is a major part of transplantation protocols.
Immunosuppression.
Folate antagonist that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, the enzyme that converts dihydrofolate to the tetrahydrofolate required for bio-synthesis of DNA and cell reproduction.
Methotrexate
Used to prevent rejection reactions and prolong graft survival after solid organ transplantation or to treat with other immunosuppressive agents.
Cyclosporine
Antimetabolite that interferes with production of DNA and RNA and thus blocks cellular reproduction, growth, and development.
Azathioprine
Used to prevent renal transplant rejection; inhibits T cell activation and is given concomitantly with corticosteriod and cyclosporine.
Sirolimus
How does the body react when foreign tissue is transplanted into the body?
An appropriate but undesirable immune response occurs when tissue is transplanted into the body. If the immune response is not suppressed, the body reacts as with other antigens and attempts to destroy the foreign tissue (graft rejection reaction). Although numerous advances have been made in transplantation technology, the immune response remains a major factor in determining the success or failure of transplantation.
What role does tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha play in the response to infection?
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha is a cytokine that plays a major role in the response to infection. Functions of the TNF include activation of monocytes macrophages and cytotoxic T cells. Enhancement of natural killer (NK) functions; Increased leukocyte movement into areas of tissue injury; increased phagocytosis by neutrophils; and stimulation of B and T lymphocytes. Despite the beneficial effects fo a normal amount of TNF however, an excessive TNF response has been associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorder such as RA and Crohns disease.
Identify two factors that prevent the immune system from turning off and abnormal immune or inflammatory process.
Several factors prevent the immune system from turning off the abnormal immune or inflammatory process. One of these factors may be an inadequate number of suppressor T cells, which are thought to be a sub-population of helper or cytotoxic T cells. Another factor may be inadequate amounts of anti-inflammatory cytokines(ex. interleukin - 10)
Identify two factors that prevent the immune system form turning off an abnormal immune or inflammatory process.
A rejection reaction occurs when the hosts immune system is stimulated to destroy the transplanted organ. The immune cells of the transplant recipient attach to the donor cells of transplant recipient attach to the donor cells of the transplanted organ and react against the antigens of the donor organ. The rejection process involves T and B lymphocytes, antibodies, multiple cytokines, and inflammatory mediators. In general T cell activation and proliferation are more important in the rejection reaction than B cell activation and formation of the antibodies. Cytotoxic and helper T cells are activated; activated helper T cells stimulate B cells to produce antibodies leading to delayed hypersensitivity reaction. The antibodies injure the transplanted organ by activating complement producing antigen antibody complexes, or causing antibody mediated tissue breakdown.
the physician changes Mrs. Gains immunosuppressant to a newer drug. She asks the physician why this is necessary. Which of the following is true about the newer immunosuppressants?

a. They have fewer severe adverse effects.

b. They are less expensive.

c. They will prolong her life.

d. They will enhance her health and well being.
a

Rationale: New Immunosuppressants have more specific effects on the immune system an d may cause fewer or less severe adverse effects than older drugs.