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24 Cards in this Set

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Tyrosine -> Dopa
goes to axoplams of symp nerve endings and is converted to dopa via TH
Dopa -> Dopamine
dopa is decarboxylated to dopamine (DA) via L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase
Dopamine -> Norepinephrine
– dopamine goes into adrenergic storage vesicles
- converted to NE via dopamine B-hydroxylase (DBH)
Norepinephrine -> Epinephrine
in neurons in the brain, NE -> EPI via PNMT
NE storage
stored in vesicles w/ ATP and DBH in nerve terminals
Cat storage in adrenal gland
in adrenal medulla is in chromaffin granules (larger)
Cat release
- AP reaches post symp nerve
– released via Ca2+ dependent, exocytosis
release of cats from adrenal gland
- Activation of pre nerves to the adrenal medulla
- activation of a nicotinic R on chromaffin cells
- that leads to release of EPI from chromaffin granules by Ca2+-dependent exocytosis
- EPI into blood and distributed as hormone
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)
converts EPI to inactive metanephrine
Entacapone
inhibits COMT – it and levodopa treat Parkinson’s disease
Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
- converts catecholamines to aldehydes, which are reduced to alcohols or oxidized to acids (both inactive)
- in symp endings to regulate cats
- in liver and kidney to metabolize cats
MAO inhibitors
- tranylcypromine and isocarboxazid
- used as antidepressants
Neuronal uptake (Uptake I)
- A transport protein on the PM of the symp nerve terminal transports NE from the synaptic space into the symp nerve ending
- against gradient, requires ATP
cocaine
inhibits neuronal uptake
imipramine
- tricyclic antidepressant
- inhibits neuronal uptake
Non-Neuronal Uptake (Uptake II)
- different selectivity for binding and transport of amines
- unimportant for termination of symp signals
- but may play a role in regulating blood levels of EPI
Vesicular Uptake
- transports dopamine (and NE) into storage vesicles via active amine pump
reserpine
- selectively and irreversibly inhibits vesicular uptake
- depletes intraneuronal NE in brain and periphery (rapid inactivation by MAO)
Tyramine
- a phenylethylamines that can be taken into storage vesicles and displaces NE
- NE is released non-exocytotically and causes an acute sympathomimetic effect
- found in certain foods
amphetamine
- a phenylethylamines that can be taken into storage vesicles and displaces NE
- NE is released non-exocytotically and causes an acute sympathomimetic effect
Pts treated w/ nonselective MAO inhibitors and Tyramine
- tryamine in food is normally broken up by MAO in the liver and gut before it gets to the bloodstream
- may develop hypertensive crises due to ingestion of foods high in tyramine
dopamine generic names
(Dopastat, Intropin)
norepinephrine generic names
(Levophed)
epinephrine generic names
(Adrenalin, Bronchaid, Primitine)