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38 Cards in this Set

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size range
0.5-2 um, some 60 um (cyanobacteria)
Epulopiscium fischelsoni - 600um long
Thiomargarita namibia- 750 um
small size ensures a high surface to volume ratio --> can respond to food and stimuli fast
coccus, bacillus, coccobacillus, spiral or spirochete (corkscrew),
size range
0.5-2um, some 60um (cyanobacteria), Epulopiscium fishelsoni- 600um
Thiomargarita namibia- 750um
high surface: volume ratio because small size, can respond to food and other stimuli fast
coccus, bacillus, occobacillus, spiral or spirochete (corkscrew), square, star-shaped, vibrio (kidney shaped)
types of aggregations
-pairs (diplo-)- esp. cocci, divide one plane in pairs, tetrad= 4 (2 planes), sarcinae=8 (3 planes)
-chains- esp. bacilli, divide side by side
-clusters (cocci)- random planes, grapelike clusters= staphylo
-packets (cocci)
-sheets (cocci)
multiple forms; both forms of cocci or bacillus
group of bacteria arising from a single cell
nutrient absorption
directly through cell wall; metabolizes
4 nutritional types
1.) photoautotrophs- fixes carbon using light as energy, eg. green and purple sulfurs, cyanobacteria
2.)photoheterotrophs- photosynthetic but uses other organic material eg. purple and green bacteria
3.) chemoautotroph- oxidizes inorganic compounds (S, H2S, Fe, H2) eg. nitrifying bacteria, archaea
4.) chemoheterotrophs- most bacteria and most diseases
types of metabolic pathways
1.) aerobic- require 16% O2
2.) microaerophilic- require 4-10%
3.) anaerobic require no O2
4.) facultative- live with or without O2
1.) aerobic glycolysis
2.) aerobic respiration
aerobes, microaerophilics, and facultatives can perform this
1.) Glc + 2 ATP --> pyruvate
2.) pyruvate --> CO2, water; via krebs
1.) anaerobic glycolysis
2.) fermentation
anaerobes and facultatives
1.) Glc + 8 ATP --> pyruvate
2.) pyruvate --> CO2, alcohols
extracellular enzymes
enhance ability to absorb nutrients; basis for phenotypic assays used for ID-ing/classifying bacteria
sensory perception
chemotaxis- attractive for food source, poisons to stay away from, ability to direct movements according to certain chemicals in their environment
phototaxis- reacts in response to light
1.) flagella
2.) axial filaments
3.) pilus
4.) slime layer
made of protein flagellin
1.) monocrichons- one flagellum eg. Vibrio cholerae
2.) lophotrichons- many flagella on one end eg. Bartonella
3.) amphotrichons- many flagella on both ends eg. Spirillum serpens
4.) Dentrichons- many all over eg. E. coli
axial filaments
only in spirilla, like a corkscrew, not freely moving; interior
prevent moving against their will and conjugation; has fimbriae for attachment
slime layer
like teeth overnight; extension of cell wall to adhere tightly to surfaces
1.) capsule
2.) endospores
3.) cell wall
form in bacilli and cocci, responsible for bacteria virulence; exterior to cell wall
form within prok cell; triggered by extreme environment; dipicolinic acid and calcium heat resistance
cell wall
most proks; prevent every day fluctuation of osmolarity of environ; made of peptidoglycan unit (backbone) provides shape and rigidity and protection from outside
N-acetylglucosamine + 4 AAs (tetrapeptide) repeats,
gram +
thick layer of peptidoglycan, extensively cross-linked, tight rigid lattice, pentapeptide crossbridge, has teichoic acid
gram -
thinner peptidoglycan layer, more easily broken by mechanical forces eg. target DNA, fewer cross bridges, outer layer surrounding peptidoglycan with lipoprotein or liposaccharide
mycoplasma a L forms
mycoplasma- lack a cell wall
L forms- lost ability to make cell wall
gram staining
1.) alkaline dye- crystal violet; heat stain 1 min.
2.) iodine to fix stain 1 min.
3.) decolorize with ethanol to remove stain (negative should be clear)
4.) counterstain- safranin
remove cell walls
1.) penicillin for gram positive --> protoplast
2.) lysozyme- for gram negative --> spheroplast
acid fast stain
acid-fast stain pink
non acid-fast stains blue
asexual reproduction
binary fission- chrom duplicates, transverse septum forms, call wall material grows inward forming a crosswall, cleavage occurs along new wall and pinches in half with 1 chrom in each half
parasexual methods
increasing genetic diversity: horizontal gene transfer -- recomb of genes from diff indiv without meiosis and fert. (no crossing over)
1.) transformation
2.) conjugation
3.) transduction
take up a plasmid from surounding when heat shocked; must be correct genus and competent; some DNA frags recombine
forms a sex pilus, traansfer F+ and large quantities of DNA, F- becomes F+
via bacteriophage; phage DNA inserts itself as a prophage into bact chrom, phage is replicated along with bact DNA prior to binary fission
cell structure
cell membrane, cell wall, additional layer, cytoplasm, ribosomes, nuclear region, external structures
beneficial effects of bacteria
1.)metabolizers: recycle elements, biodegradation, bioremediation, endosymbionts
2.) industrial uses: antibiotics, food processing, fermentation, research and clinical agents, recombinant DNA, food source
3.) disease prevention
4.) research
detrimental effects of bacteria
1.) food spoilage
2.) diseases in plants and animals that are human food sources eg. fire blight on apple trees
3.) disease causation- most human infectious diseases are caused by bacteria