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31 Cards in this Set

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At this point food enters the __________, which serves as a common passageway for both the respiratory system and the digestive system.
pharynx
The _______________ is a posterior continuation of the nasal cavity and is not actually part of the digestive system.
nasopharynx
The _________ is a small, fleshy mass which hangs from the soft ________, just above the base of the tongue.
uvula
palate
The _______________ which is a combination of the roots oro- (meaning relationship to the mouth) and pharynx, extends from the soft palate within the mouth to the level of the hyoid bone. Also in this region is the ____________, which is a lid-like structure composed of cartilage which hangs over the entrance to the larynx to prevent food from entering the larynx or trachea upon swallowing.
oropharynx
epiglottis
The _____________ is that part of the alimentary canal which connects the pharynx to the stomach. It is basically a muscular tube which is about 25 cm long. The muscular function of the ____________ is not voluntary. There are basically eight steps which occur to get food from the mouth to the stomach.
esophagus
esophagus
rounded mass of food
bolus
What is the most distended portion of the alimentary canal?
stomach
The _________ orifice is the junction between the esophagus and the stomach. This is also frequently referred to as the "GE junction" (gastroesophageal junction).
cardiac
The _________ is the dome-shaped portion of the stomach which extends slightly above the cardia orifice.
fundus
The _______ of the stomach is the widest portion and is located between the lesser and greater curvatures.
body
The ___________ of the stomach is the last area of the stomach, just before the duodenum.
pylorus
The _____________ ________________ is the longest portion of the alimentary canal.
small intestine 21 feet long and is 2.5 cm wide
The small intestine is divided into three main regions which are:
1. duodenum
2. jejunum
3. ileum
The small intestine makes the transition to the large intestine here through what is called the ___________ ___________.
ileocecal valve
The distal-most portion of the alimentary canal is the __________
__________________.
large intestine
Most water is absorbed and feces are formed in the __________ ____________.
large intestine
The large intestine is divided into four major regions: List them
1. cecum
2. colon
3. rectum
4. anal canal/anus
The cecum opens into the colon and has the ___________, a small, finger-like projection, which is attached to its medial portion.
appendix
The second portion of the large intestine is the colon. Different areas of the colon have specific terms assigned to them. First is the Q#1______________ colon which arises from the cecum and goes in an upward direction (ascends). At approximately the liver the colon bends sharply, and this area is referred to as the Q#2_____________ flexure. The colon then extends in a horizontal direction, and that portion is called the Q#3___________ colon. At the left abdominal wall there is another sharp bend in the colon. This is called the Q#4____________ flexure and is the beginning of the Q#5____________ colon, or that portion of the large intestine which goes downward (descends). Finally, the colon terminates in an S-shaped bend which is referred to as the Q#6___________ colon.
1. ascending
2. hepatic
3. tranverse
4. splenic
5. descending
6. sigmoid
The next of the four major regions of the large intestine is the rectum, which is a tube approximately 15 cm long which is located between the sigmoid colon and the ______ canal. The _______ canal forms a muscular opening in the muscles of the pelvic floor which is called the _______. This is currounded by both involuntary and voluntary muscular ___________.
anal
anal
anus
sphincters
The large intestine is so named because it is the ____________ portion of the canal(6 cm in diameter).
widest
The large intestine has a larger ______________ than the small intestine.
diameter
There are no _________ in the large intestine.
villi
There are three distinct longitudinal muscles, ________ coli, which run the length of the large intestine.
teniae
There is also a series of bulges in the wall of the large intestine which are called ________________ or haustra.
sacculations
Although the alimentary canal comprises most of the digestive system, there are a few accessory organs which secrete directly into the alimentary canal via ducts, and these are therefore important to digestion. They include the liver, _____________, and the pancreas.
gallbladder
The liver is the largest ________ in the body.
gland
The ________ is made up of many liver lobules which produce bile which is continuously secreted into the intestines and is very important to digestion.
liver
The ________________ is a sac-like organ which is attached to the undersurface of the liver. It stores and concentrates bile.
gallbladder
The _______ duct drains the gallbladder. It unites with the ___________ duct to form the ___________ _______ which conveys bile into the duodenum.
cystic
hepatic
common bile
The pancreas is involved in both the digestive and the ____________________ systems. For its role in digestion, it creates __________ and secretes them into the duodenum for the breakdown of foods.
endocrine systems
juices