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37 Cards in this Set

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herbicide
kills plants
Carbamates
extremely toxic to bees, similar to organophosphates
How do you measure water in a stream?
Discharge : amount of water passing a specific point in a given time.
What are the health problems associated with over-use and miss-use of pesticides?
effects on non-target species and resistance to pesticides
Biological controls
microbial agents, bacteria, parasidic wasps
Pond vs. Lake
Pond - shallow enough for plants to grow acros entire bottom.

Lake - holds standing water year-round, deeper pond
insecticide
kills insects
Antagonistic Reaction
one material interferes wiht or stimulates breakdown of the other material
Where do we get drinking water?
ground water
fungicide
kills fungus
Additive Reaction
effects of each chemical added to one another
Withdrawal and consumption
Withdrawal - total amount taken from a source

Consumption - fraction of withdrawn H2O made unavailable for other purposes
acaricide
kills mites, ticks, spiders
Synergistic Reaction
one substance makes the other more severe (most dangerous)
two biggest problems associated with overdrawing ground water?
depleat aquifers/ lose wetlands and wells
cones of depression and sink holes
nematicide
kills nematodes
What drives the hydrologic cycle?
Solar energy
Major techniques being discussed to increase water supplies?
cloud seeding - condensation nucei
Towing iceburgs - cost and feasibility is a problem
desalination - 3-4 times more expensive than other sources
rodenticide
kills rodents
Evaporation and Sublimation
Evaporation - water goes from liquid to gas

Sublimation - substance goes straight from solid to gas... no liquid stage
Watershed
All land drained by a river or stream
avicide
kills birds
Saturation Point and Relative humidity
Saturation Point - total amount of water a temperature can hold.

Relative humidity - amount of water a temperature cloud is currently holding.
What causes the most crop damage?
insects
Inorganic pesticides
generally neurotozins, indestructable (stay in soil)
highly toxic
Rain Shadows
Rains on one side of a mountain because of the drop in temperature, but on the other side of the mountain there is no rain.
What benefits of pesticides have caused their over-use?
disease control
crop protection
increasing mass of cattle
Natural Organic Pesitcides
plant extracts (pines and botanicals)
Why are most deserts located at 30 degrees N or S of the equator?
The air cycle dictates this. Hot air at equator = lots of water... hot air rises.
Air cools, it rains and air is pushed N or S.
Cool air is dense and falls, then it sucks up water cause it is now warmer and can hold more water.
What is the problem with using pesticides?
increased resistance
90 percent never reach target
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
synthetic - fast acting, highly toxic

DDT - block nerve signal transmission
Where is water located? (mostly)
87% in glaciers, ice caps, and snow fields
How do pesticides spread through the environment?
grasshopper effect - go through the water cycle
Biocide
wide range of organisms
Organophosphates
extremely toxic to mammals, birds, and fish

from nerve gas research
Artesian Well and Recharge Zone
Artesian Well - pressured aquifer... no pump needed

Recharge Zone - where water enters an aquifer
bioaccumulation
accumulates in an individual living organism