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56 Cards in this Set

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Ethical Inquiry
-deals with questions and issues of value
Value
-understood in the sense of the goodness (rightness) and badness (wrongness) or ones actions

-can be viewed as a learned trait, where a certain level of reasoning and intellectual understanding must exist before value can exist.

-is anything having relative worth in the sense of what one thinks is valuable

-2 categories: Moral and nonmoral
Ethics
-a normative or prescriptive form of inquiry, rather than descriptive since it is concerned with how human agents ought to treat one another rather than with how in fact they are treating one another

-principles of human duty usually related to a specific profession, religion or group. The study of underlying issues. The study of morality
Clarity:
-elaborate, illustrate, be more specific
-create or give examples

Accuracy:
-how does one confirm the info?
-finding the truth
-how to verify your test info
-determine the accuracy of the source

Precision:
-more specific, more details
-exactness of terminology

Relevance:
-how does the issue or question relate to the problem at hand?
-how to bear on the question?
-how does that clarify the issue?
The Process of Critical Thinking: Universal Intellectual standards
Ethics IN sport
-is about internal issues related to sport and ethical behavior.

-fair play is about ethics ___ sport
Ethics AND sport
-is ethical issues that come into sport from other areas of society.

-Racism is about ethics in general society and it impinges into the sport community
-Ethics ___ sport is the application of the isms of society to the sport environment
-Applying general moral values to sport situations can be referred to as Ethics ___ sport
Sport
-that which is played for a goal beyond winning. Focus on participation, fitness, and enjoyment
Athletics
-Competition with winning as the main focus
Mythical Norm
-a descriptive term representing how others view/generalize the characteristics of a given population

-For America, this is usually defined as: white, thin, male, young, heterosexual, christian, financially secure

-dominant groups, by definition, set the parameters within which the subordinates operate. Many of us are both dominant and subordinate (white and female).
Prejudice
-a preoccupied judgement/opinion usually based on limited info.
Internalized Oppression
-a process of development of categorization and internalizing the stereotypical categories about ones own group to some degree
Racism
-not only a personal ideology based on racial prejudice, but a system involving cultural messages and institutional policies and practices as well as the beliefs and actions of individuals
Active Racism
-the outward, elatent, intentional acts of racial bigotry
Passive Racism
-more subtle and can be seen in the collusion of laughing when a racist joke is told, of letting exclusionary hiring practices go unchallenged, of accepting as appropriate the omissions of people of color from the curriculum, and of avoiding difficult race related issues
Prejudice plus Power
-racial prejudice when combined with social power leads to the institutionalization of racist policies and practices
White Privilege
-the systematic advantage of being white
Reductionism
-the outward active steps and process to assist in the reduction of "ism" beliefs held by individuals and or a group
-Non-moral values and the good they bring determine how one makes moral decisions

-Utility values
-Extrinsic values
-Inherent values
-Intrinsic values
-Contributory values
-Final Values
Non-moral Values
Utility values
-objects that are viewed as having a "value" because of their usefulness for some purposes
Extrinsic values
-something that is viewed as "valuable" because it provides a means to what is good
Inherent values
-Internal thoughts because the experience of contemplating something is good or rewarding in itself
Intrinsic values
-the good within a person or because of ones own intrinsic properties
Contributory values
-they contribute to intrinsically good life
Final values
-all things or a combination of things that are good on the whole
-the relative worth that is place on some virtuous behavior. They are internal, subjective and immeasurable in an objective sense.

-Justice
-Honesty
-Responsibility
-Beneficence
Moral Values
Justice
-distributive, procedural, retributive, and compensatory
Honesty
-dealing fairly and upright in speech and action
Responsibility
-accounting for your actions
Beneficence
-not doing harm, preventing harm, removing harm, and doing good
Principles
-first rules
-universal guides that tell us which kinds of actions, intentions, and motives are permitted/okay
-universal rules of conduct that define what is valued

-Principles are double negatives
Result oriented principles
-any behavior acceptable to win
Performance or experience oriented principles
-winning accepted only if follow the rules, or following the spirit and the letter of the rules is the important point, or participation is important rather than winning
Justice (Principle)
-Do not be unfair
Honesty (Principle)
-Do not lie, cheat, or steal
Responsibility (Principle)
-Do not be irresponsible
Beneficence (Principle)
-Do not be uncivil
Moral Reasoning
-thinking about what is the right thing to do and why it is right. A systematic process of evaluating personal values and developing a consistent and impartial set of moral principles to live by.

1) is a problem solving activity

2) the purpose is to discover the truth, therefore opposing positions are analyzed to decide whether to agree or not

3) to reason morally, one must be logical and consistent
Moral Knowing
-the ability to know that a moral dilemma exists to know how to look at the greater picture surrounding the dilemma, to know how to reason through the dilemma to find the right thing to do
Moral Valuing
-what we believe about ourselves, society and others. Takes into consideration one's empathy, self-control, humanity and conscience as directing actions toward others
Moral Actions
-the outward behavior that is contingent on values and cognitive processes. Daily habits of "doing the right thing".
Moral Arguing
-the process to reach agreement through systematic reasoning
Morality
-Social learning theorists say it is learned through socialization processes

-Modeling and rewarding of behaviors in particular situations encourages generalizations to all areas of life.

-Research says athlete populations are significantly less morally reasoned and morally developed than their peer population of non-athletes
Fair Play
-occurs when all players have the same chance for success

-to develop an awareness of others' feelings and needs
Athlete
-term derived from Greek verb Athlein: to contend for a prize;

noun Athlos: contest;

or Athlon: a prize awarded for successful completion of the contest
Amos Alonzo Stagg
-brilliant Yale athlete
-40 years Head FB coach at U of Chicago

-perceived scholarly training and ideal background in moral theory to discuss the problems of sportsmanship

-Created the Codes of sportsmanship or "Ten Commandments" for the coach and the football player
the Color Enhanced Society
-an ideal society where ethnicity and race are not an issue

-a society in which people are measured according to their personalities

-no animosity, jealousy, and no competition between races.

-In modern society, Hong Kong for example because they accept, appreciate, and tolerate so much.
Sportsmanship
-adhering to the spirit of the rules as well as to the rules

-duty to treat others within the sport environment with respect, including opponents, officials, coaches.

-refusal to seek an unfair advantage of the opponent = playing within the spirit of the rules.
Gamesmanship
-unsportsmanlike, yet not breaking the rules

-the art and science of gaining a strategic advantage through morally questionable means without technically breaking the rules.
1) Disrespect of Officials: we teach deception to help officials error in our favor. Disrespect of officials by coaches has become an art

2) Disrespect of the Opponent: intimidation and recklessness to get an advantage. Taking gamble with the opponents physical welfare

3) Disrespect of the Game: looking for gaps in the rules and intentionally taking advantage if it. Scanning the rules for a place where the penalty is light and payback is high (intentional foul).

4) Disrespect of Victory: cheating at crucial moments to ensure a win
4 places where respect has been lost at a lower level/younger age
the Good Sport
-respects the game, concerned with how well it is played and appreciates good play, whether it is his or her own or the opponents; respects and supports not only the rules of the sport but the spirit of those rules as well
the Poor Sport
-uses different standards to judge his/her own play and that of opponents; no responsibility for own poor play or actions
the Gamesperson
-primarily concerned w/Winning; plays to the letter, not the spirit of the rules, considers anything permitted that is not explicably forbidden and sees penalties as costs of doing business; may well be completely fair in that he/she expects the opponent to play in exactly the same way
the Cheat
-unconcerned about fairness, will break the rules often hoping no one notices, concerned only with the score; no longer plays and can never actually win
the Spoilsport
-intentionally destroys the game for others; insists the game be played to his/her advantage or he/she will take the equipment home; makes it impossible for others to play
the Trifler
-does not care about the game and does not try to play; may be on the field but makes no effort to perform the actions the game requires

-differs from an unskilled player who is at least trying
-Sport and Athletics teaches character because it is competitive, physical, and emotionally demanding, and it pushes people to their limits. But there is no guarantee that the character traits Sport/Athletics teaches are good ones
Does sport provide an environment for positive character development?