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23 Cards in this Set

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lPregiving (and why is this an effective strategy?);
1. the pregiving strategy is based on the norm of reciprocity
-- if i scratch your back, you scratch mine (against the concept of love for no reason but i guess you give to have relationships.. or maybe you just give to give.. knowing that that person may not even stick around)
-- we should try to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us with.
- getting people to feel indebted
- is this tactic successful?
a. once you accept something, its not so free sample (no free lunch)
Sequential Persuasion Tactics: Foot in the Door (FITD) and Door in the Face (DITF); (definitions/explanations of each/their promise and limitations; explanations for why they work);
how to make your message persuasive via two main strategies
1. FITD: foot in the door technique
- requires a persuader to send two sequential messages in order to gain compliance
- first message: make a request that is pretty small that most targets will agree to it
- second request: make much larger than initial request; this is where the persuader really wants compliance
- a person that agrees to smaller request will likely take on another request
- people who agree to a small request earlier will likely agree to another request later
DIFT: door in face technique
1. send two messages in order
a. make a very large request first. when denied the requester can make a smaller request, for what one actually wanted in the first place
b. initial compliance request that is so large it is generally rejected
c. the second request is smaller
* the basic principle: a person is inclined reject to the large initial request and more inclined to give into the second smaller one.
ex: they did an experiment when they asked them to donate blood once every 2 or 3 months for 3 years.. and then they just asked them to donate the next day, one time and people were more likely to say yes.
Lowball Tactic;
II. low ball technique (sequential persuasion) (agreement, then changing the deal)
1. commitment is gained: first to reasonable or desirable terms (even enticements), which are then made less reasonable or desirable afterwards
a. henry accepts the price he states for a new car. then later tilie the saleswoman tells henry “the business would lose too much money on that price; can’t you take a bit less and add all these options?”
b. adds more cost to the buyer
The Bait-and-Switch Tactic.
Marwell and Schmitt’s Five Basic Types of Compliance-Gaining Strategies (rewarding activity, punishing activity, etc.);
1. rewarding activity: making promises (seeking compliance in POSITIVE way)
2. punishing activity: seeking compliance in a NEGATIVE way (threats)
3. expertise: attempts to look credible
4. activation of impersonal commitments: appeal to INTERNALIZED commitments
5. activiation of personal commitments: appeal to persons commitment to others (External)
Compliance-Gaining Strategies and Situational circumstances (short-term and long term consequences);
1. noninterpersonal; short term consequences: you want to get a dealer you barely know to give you a 1,000 trade in on your old car
2. noninterpersonal; long term consequences- you want your new neighbors, who want to cut down the tree that adds value to your home, to leave the tree standing
3. interpersonal; short term consequences- you have a close relationship with a man and want to cancel a date in order to visit an old acquaintance who is passing through town
4. interpersonal; long term consequences- you have a close relationship with someone and you want him/her to move to a new geographical location so that you can get a new job.

situation strongly affects choice. in all situations people liked friendly but threats were better in short term, noninterpersonal situations.
Compliance-Gaining Strategies and marital types (traditionals, etc.);
1. traditionals : discussed positive and negative outcomes of proposed courses. tended to be open and used their relationships as a basis of POWER
2. separates: focus on negative consequences of noncompliance and constrain behavior of spouses.
3. independents: wider variety of power base. discounted and refuted their partners often.
3. independents:
Five Bases of Power (reward, coercive, etc.);
1. reward power: control over valued resources (promotion/raise)
2. coercive power: ability to inflict punishment (fire you)
3. expert power: based on what a person knows (do what a doctor tells you to do because he/she knows more about medicine than you do)
4. legitimate power: based on formal rank/position.
5. referent power: when the person you are trying to influence wants to be like them (mentor)
Social Desirability Bias;
in research, often people dont necessarily choose their honest answer. they do what makes them look good so that they are more socially acceptable.
Primary and Secondary Goals (p. 241-3).
efficacy: achieving goal without wasting time/resources

appropriateness: accomplishing their goal in a socially acceptable and respectful way.

main goal: to influence another person.. the strategy is the next important factor.

secondary goals:
1. identity goals: maintaning ones moral standards and principles for living
2. interaction goals: concerned with creating a good impression and behaving in appropriate ways.
3. resource goals: concerned with maintaining a relationship and increasing personal rewards (would not use a strat that would end a friendship)
4. arousal: concerned with maintaining level of arousal (low) -nervousness ex.

people develop plans (goal, plan, action) in order to get compliance.
Information Manipulation Theory (amount, veracity, relevance, etc.);
1. they might tell the truth but not the whole truth (not providing the quantity of info)
2. might violate the quality of information provided (its not all true)
3. might manipulate information through manner violations - communicating info that is vague and ambiguous.
4. relation violations: presenting messages that are irrelevant.
Meta-analyses, specifically know some of the cues relating to deception (p. 252);
1. liars responses are shorter than the honest guys
2. liars provide less details
3. pressing lips as if holding back
4. stories have less structure
5. liars seem evasive and impersonal
6. liars sound more uncertain
7. liars raise their chins more
8. liars repeat themselves more
9. liars are less cooperative
10. liars responses contain more negative expressions
11. liars face are less pleasant
12. liars appear more nervous
13. liars speak in a higher pitch with more vocal tension
14. more dialated pupils
15. fidgeting
16. spontaneous correction
17. admitted lack of memory
The “wool pullers” (Machiavellian personality);
the boy who cried wolf should have quit while he was ahead - he would have scored high on the machiavellian test. machiavellians are not interested in personal relationships, manipulates others for selfish purposes and has little sense of social morality. really are wolves in sheeps clothing.
The probing effect (p. 263-4);
sometimes probing a potential liar for more information may be necessary. probing the liar for more info can actually make them seem more honest
behavioral adaptation explanation
when probing occurs liars suspect theyre being probed so they adjust their lies to be more believable.
our shortcuts rely on
probing heuristic: you assume once they see you probing they will tell the truth so instead of scrutinizing you use a shortcut and assume they are telling the truth.
a truthful person may get anxious when assumed they are lying and then you may perform the ____
othello error: detector wrongly assumes the anxious behavior as indicative of deception.
Motivational Appeals;
EXTERNAL inducements- often of emotional nature designed to increase the individuals drive to undertake some course of action. alter moods, feelings. exaggerated a speech problem for sympathy.
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation;
intrinsic: comes from within. live to work.

extrinsic: instilled by external factor. work to live

anxiety, fear, guilt, health, honor, humor, patriotism, pride, sex, warmth.
Fear Appeals;
if you cross your eyes, they'll stay like that. swine flu, school shootings... effectiveness of fear appeals.

more fear, more persuasion.
- can engage in
1. danger control:reduce the danger (condoms to prevent HIV) focuses on the solution

2. fear control: worry about worry. focuses on the problem

percieved efficacy: (can be high or low. high if they think they can solve it) whether a person thinks an action is effective and feasible in order to avoid harm in the fear appeal

- effective response = response efficacy
- self efficacy- that he/she is capable of undertaking a response.
Guilt and Pity Appeals (sympathy for uncontrollable factors);
the posters to bring people to feel the most guilt made people donate the most money.
- guilt appeals should be used to create positive feelings for doing the right things, vs focusing on losing face
- college students response to stigmas (obesity, drug addiction) students showed more feelings of sympathy if they thought the issue was uncontrollable! obesity because of a body dysfuntion
Humor Appeals (self-disparaging humor);
humor directed at oneself.
1. captures attention
2. distraction
3. increases liking
avoid self disp if you have low credibility to begin with... use it if you have high cred. and you want people to like you more.
Sex appeals (p. 281-283).