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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functional language
what words do
Weaver's grammatical categories
simple sentences = simple perception of the world
compound sentences = set things either in balance or opposition, perception of world in terms of similarities or opposites
complex sentences = not all parts can stand alone, several causes and effects, some parts more important than others
adjectives = make the noun special
Semantic language
what words mean
different things to different people
maps (perceptions) v territories (realities)
strategic ambiguity
words that can be interpreted in different, often contradictory ways
combining words or phrases in startling ways or presenting issues in new light
examining connotations and denotations
thematic language
how words feel
alliteration = repeating consonants
assonance = repeating vowels
sensory language
"god", "devil" and charismatic terms
four elements of signification
object/condition that exists
signs available to represent
set of choices
set or rules used to decode
Burke's identification
linguistic sharing of substances, the essence of oneself
sharing of essential beliefs, values, experiences, attitudes
Types of evidence
direct experience
dramatic or vicarious
cognitive dissonance in persuasion
causing an imbalance between current beliefs and desired beliefs in order to get persuadees to change their stance
Types of reasoning
cause to effect - most common
effect to cause - finding causes of food poisoning
from symptoms - identify series of signs and draw conclusions
criteria to application - a,b and c are the criteria for a product or cause, X is the product/cause that will meet the criteria
comparison or analogy
figurative analogy
deductive reasoning - general to specific
inductive reasoning - specific to general
Cultural myths
wisdom of the rustic
possibility of success
coming of a messiah
conspiracy theory
value of challenge
eternal return
"man's man" and "woman's woman"
Jeremiad - inherent struggle
mob at the gates
triumphant individual
benevolant community
rot at the top
American value system
puritan and pioneer morality
value of individual
achievement and success
change and progress
ethical equality
effort and optimism
efficiency, practicality and pragmatism
nonverbal channels
appeals to attractiveness, similarity, intimacy, trust
dominance and power displays
expectancy signaling and violations
artifactual communication
facial expression
eye behavior
vocal factors
haptics (tactile communication)
proxemics (space)
public space - 15-25 feet or more
social/formal space - 7-12 feet
personal/informal - 3 1/2-4 feet
intimate - 6-18 inches
kinesics (body language)
posture - open/closed, erect and relaxed/tense or slouched
gestures - positive/negative/neutral evalutations, emblems
head movement - nodding, shaking, tilting, thrust jaw, etc
eye contact
Deceptive claims
Irrelevant claim - manmade, all natural, fat free, low carb
Advantage - less or more
Hazy - I'm for/against X
Question - Why not the original?
Magic ingredient