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55 Cards in this Set

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(1304-1374) The father of Italian Renaissance humanism. Said “Christ is my God; Cicero is the prince of the language.”
Leonardo Da Vinci
Italian: one of three who dominated High Renaissance; advanced beyond realism and initiated the idealization of nature
(1475-1564) Italian. painter, sculptor, and architect. Painted the Sistine Chapel. Made ideal human bodies, God-like figures
(1469-1527) Italian. Wrote The Prince, one of the most influential works on political power in the Western world.
Cosomo de'Medici
(1434-1464) Took control of the ruling oligarchy of the Florentine government which ruled most of northern Italy.
(1466-1536) The most influencial Christian Humanist. He called his conception of religion “the philosophy of Christ.” Emphasized inner piety not external forms of religion
Martin Luther
() Was a monk and a professor at the university of wittenberg, Germany, where he lectured on the Bible between 1513 and 1516. Wrote the Ninety-Five Theses. Claimed it was faith alone and not works that justifies and brings salvation through Christ.
The Anabaptists
The Anabaptists were the radical reformers of the protestant reformation. “The true Christian church was a voluntary association of believers who had undergone spiritual rebirth and had then been baptized into the church.” Adult rather than infant baptism. Would not hold political office and would not bear arms. Were prosecuted by both protestants and Catholics.
John Calvin
(1509-1564) Was from France but converted to Protestantism and fled to Switzerland. Published the first edition of the Institutes of the Christian Religion. Believed in predestination.
Henry VIII
(1509-1547) wanted to divorce his wife but pope would not allow it so he had the archbishop of Canterbury allow the divorce of his wife. In 1534 the Church of England broke its ties with Rome. Father of future queen Elizabeth I
Queen Mary of England
(1553-1558) Was Catholic and attempted to return England to Catholicism. She was given the name “Bloody Mary” because she burned more than three hundred Protestants "heretics".
Ignatius Loyola
(1491-1556) Spanish nobleman who founded the Society of Jesus or the Jesuits.
Isabelle of Castille
Married Ferdinand of Aragon. Major step in unifying Spain. Kicked Jews and Muslims out of Spain.
Phillip II of spain
King of Spain. The greatest advocate of militant Catholicism in the second half of the sixteenth century.
Elizabeth I of England
English. Born 1533. Ruled England from 1558-1603. England became leader of the protestant nations. Supreme governor of Church and state.
Oliver Cromwell
(English/Protestant) Leader of the New Model Army during England's Civil War. Died in 1648.
Louis XIV
KIng of France
Peter the Great
Ruled Russia from 1689-1725. 1697-1698 made a trip to western Europe and bought ideas back to Russia. Military Power. Founded St. Petersburg in 1703.
Nicholas Copernicus
Poland: developed heliocentric (sun-centered) conception of the universe, moon orbits the Earth
Johannes Kepler
(1571 - 1630) German: Laws of planetary motion confirming Copernicus, showed orbits were elliptical not circular
Galileo Galilei
(1564 - 1642) Italian: first European to make systematic observations of the heavens by means of a telescope, started new age in astronomy. Condemned by Catholic church. Saw four moons of Jupiter, sunspots and mountains on moon
Isaac Newton
1642 - ) English: three laws of motion; universal law of gravitation
Margaret Cavendish
(1623-1673) Figure in Modern Science
Rene Descartes
(1596 - 1650) France: Separation of mind and matter; dualism; father of modern rationalism
Francis Bacon
English: developed widely used scientific method
Vasco De Gama
(1498 voyage) Portugal: voyage inaugurated European expansion into Asia and was a crucial step in opening trade routes to the east
Christopher Columbus
(1451-1506) Italian but sailed for Spain. Oct. 1492 arrived in Americas.
Las Casas
(1474-1566) Was a Dominican Monk from Spain. Fought for Indian rights
Hernan Cortes
Spanish; conqueror of Mexico; “God, glory and gold” were primary motives for his voyages; tried to convert native Mexicans to Catholicism.
Gutenberg's Bible
completed in 1455 or 1456, was the first true book produced from movable type.
Expulsian of Jews and Muslims from Spain
Expulsion of Jews in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella. Expulsion of Muslims in 1502 by Isabella.
Hundred Years War
Conflict between English and French lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. Took place in Northern France and ended with the expulsion of English from France.
95 thesis
A stunning indictment of the abuses in the sale of indulgences. Thousands of copies were printed and quickly spread to all parts of Germany.
Sack of Rome
In 1527 Rome was sacked by the armies of the Spanish king Charles I. Brought a temporary end to the Italian wars.
Jesuits Approved by Pope
(1540) The society of Jesus (Jesuits) was approved by the pope. New order was grounded on the principles of absolute obedience to the papacy, strict hierarchical order, and education. Engaged in “Conflict for God.”
Council of Trent
(march 1545 - 1563) Group of high church officials met in the city of Trent (border between Germany and Italy). Affirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs. Scripture was equal to tradition. Only church could interpret scriptures. Both works and faith required for salvation. Selling of indulgences was prohibited.
30 year war
(1618-1648) Fought in the Holy Roman Empire between the Catholic Habsburg Holy Roman Emperors and the Protestant - primarily Calvinist - nobles in Bohemia who rebelled against Habsburg authority. Denmark, Sweden, France, and Spain all entered the war.
Peace of Westphalia
1648. The official end of the Thirty years war. Proclaimed that all German states were free to determine their own religion. France emerged as dominate force in Europe
Charles I Beheaded
Was beheaded Jan 30 1649. Monarchy was abolished and the house of lords was also abolished. England became Republic.
English Civil War
1642-1648 Won by the parliamentary forces.
Restoration of the English Monarchy
Glorious Revolution
Overthrow of James II in 1688 and in Jan. 1689 parliament offered the thrown to William and Mary who accepted it with the provisions of the Bill Of Rights.
Englih Bill of rights
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494, Divided the newly discovered World into separate Portugese and Spanish spheres of influence. East toward the Cape of Good Hope was given to Portugal and the Atlantic route was given to Spain.
Spanish Conquest of Mexico
Pizarros conquest of the Inca's
(1531-1536) Took control of Incan empire in present day Peruvian andes.
First Boatload of African Slaves arrive in the Americas
1518, Spanish ship carried first boatload of African slaves to the new world.
Christian Humanism
Believed in the ability of human beings to reason and improve themselves. Believed to change society they must first change the human beings who composed it.
Protestant reformation
Can be said to begin with Luther's 95 theses in 1517. Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anabaptists. A reform in doctrine such as it is by faith alone and not works that one comes into salvation. Abolished both monasticism and celibate clergy. Focused on the family.
Catholic Reformation
3 main tenets in Catholic reformation: the Jesuits, a reformed papacy, and the Council of Trent.
Renaissance (Italia)
1350-1550). French for “rebirth.” Was the rebirth of classical antiquity - the world of the Greeks and Romans. Renaissance was also an age of recovery from the disasters of the Black Death, political disorder, and economic recession. New social idea of a high regard for human worth and for individual potentiality.
English Protestants inspired by Calvinist theology who wished to remove all traces of Catholicism from the Church of England.
An economic theory that held that a nation's prosperity depended on its supply of gold and silver and that the total volume of trade is unchangeable. Encourages exports and discourages imports.
Columbian Exchange
exchange of agriculture, slave labor, live stock, communicable disease and ideas between the eastern and western hemisphere that occurred after 1492.
Form of government where monarch ruled by divine right and therefore was responsible only to God.