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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
- father of Italian Renaissance humanism
- emphasis of classical Latin
(1478 - 1529)
- wrote "the Book of the Courtier"
Book of the Courtier
perfect courtier:
1) born noble
2) military/bodily exercises
3) classical education, arts, etc.
Jan van Eyck
- N. Renaissance painter
- first to use oil paint
- attempts to imitate nature
- (1380 - 1441)
- (1466 - 1536)
- Christian humanist
- "philosophy of Christ"
- inner faith over outer forms of worship
- publishes Greek NT (1516)
Charles V
- (1519 - 1556)
- Holy Roman Emperor
- wanted to conserve Catholicism in HRE, excommunicated Luther
- religious warfare w/ Francis I --> Peace of Augsburg
Peace of Augsburg
- set up by Charles V
- 1555
- German princes choose religion for their state
"Institutes of Christian Religion"
- 1536
- written by John Calvin
Thomas Cranmer
- 1530'sish
- Archbishop of Canterbury
- allowed Henry VIII to nulify marriage to Catherine
- led to Act of Supremacy
Henry of Navarre
- late 16th, early 17th century
- political leader of Huguenots
- succeed to French throne as Henry IV
- converted to Catholicism and ended French wars of religion
Elizabeth I
- ascended throne of England in 1558
- kept England mostly Protestant, but allowed freedom to Catholics
- defeated Spanish Armada (Phillip II)
Frederick William
- "the Great Elector"
- 1640 - 1688
- established General War Commissariat
- laid foundations for Prussian state
Ivan the Terrible
- 1533 - 1584
- first Russian tsar
- crushed the power of the Russian nobility
James I
- English king - 1603- 1645
- divine right of kings
- strong defense of Anglican church
Charles I
- 1625 - 1649 - England
- divine right monarchy
- attempted to add more rituals to Anglican church, which made it seem Catholic
- English civil war v. Oliver Cromwell
- executed in 1649
Oliver Cromwell
- won English civil war with his New Model Army
- established military dictatorship in England taht lasted only until his death
Charles II
- restored monarchy to England
- Declaration of Indulgence
Declaration of Indulgence
- passed by Charles II of England
- suspended lawas that Parliament had passed against Catholics and Puritans
- Parliament forced him to suspend declaration
William and Mary
- William of Orange (Dutch) and wife Mary (James II's daughter)
- invited by English nobility to invade
- invade in 1689 - took over monarchy
- establish Bill of Rights
- = England's Glorius Revoltuion
Bill of Rights
- put into place by William and Mary
- affirmed Parliament's right to make laws and levy taxes
- confirmed rights of citizens to keep arms and have a jury trial
Margaret Cavendish
- 1620's
- female scientist
- critical of belief that humans through science were masters of nature
- "Observations upon Experimental Philosophy"
Maria Winkelmann
- 1670 - 1720
- famous female astronomer
- discovered a comet
Rene Descartes
- 1596- 1650
- "Discourse on Method" - 1637
- accept things only on reason
- Cartesian Dualism
- "I think, therefore I am"
Cartesian dualism
- Descartes
- absolute separation between mind and matter
Vasco De Gama
- Portugese
- rounded Cape of Good HOpe and landed in India in 1498
- "spices and Christians"
Marco Polo
- Italian
- traveled to court of Mongol ruler Khan
- as one of Khan's ambassadors, traveled to Japan
- 1290's
- "Travels"
Prince Henry the Navigator
- Prince of Portugal (1394-1460)
- explored coast of Africa
- motives: extending Christianity, new trade opportunites
- brought back black slaves
Las Casas
- 1540sish
- Dominican monk - championed the Indians
- publications against the encomienda system
encomienda system
- institued by Queen Isabella
- permitted conquering Spaniards to collect tribut from natives and use them as laborers
- in return, holder was supposed to protect Indians
Hernan Cortes
- 1519 - overthrew Aztec empire
- wanted to convert Mexicans to Catholicism
- Dutch farmers who settled in S. Africa, near Cape Town
- 1650s ish
- group of people who mined hills along upper Zambezi River
- attacked by Portugese and by migrating pastoralists
sack of Rome
- 1527
- Spanish armies under Charles I
- ended Italian wars
Edict of Nantes
- 1598
- established Catholicism as official religion of France
- guaranteed Huguenots freedom (political, etc.)
Thirty Years' War
- 1618-1648
- struggle between Catholic forces (HRE) and Protestant nobles
- ended by Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
- 1648
- ended 30 Years' War
- all German states were free to determine their own religion
- dominated economic thought in 17th century
- prosperity of a nation depended on a plentiful supply of bullion (gold and silver)
- goods exported greater value than goods imported
England's Bill of Rights
- established by WIlliam and Mary in 1689
- affirmed Parliament's right to make laws and levy taxes
- confirmed citizens' rights to keep arms and have a jury trial