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168 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the epigenetic principle?
-states that human growth has a ground plan and operates in terms of stages that unfold in a variant sequence
What is virtue?
-inherent strengths that are an outgrowth of successful resolution of conflicts associated w/ the various developmental stages.
What are the 8 stages of development?
-oral sensory stage (birth-1 year)
-muscular anal stage (2-3)
-locomotor genital stage(4-5)
-latency stage (6-12)
-adolescence (13-19)
-young adulthood (20-24)
-middle adulthood (25-64)
-late adulthood (65-death)
What is the ego crisis and ego strenth of the oral sensory stage?
-basic trust vs. mistrust
What is the ego crisis and ego strenth of the muscular anal stage?
-autonomy vs shame & doubt
What is the ego crisis and ego strenth of the locomotor genital stage?
-initiative vs guilt
What is the ego crisis and ego strenth of the latency stage?
-industry vs inferiority
What is the ego crisis and ego strenth of the adolescence stage?
-identity vs role confusion
What is the ego crisis and ego strenth of the young adulthood stage?
-intimacy vs isolation
What is the ego crisis and ego strenth of the middle adulthood stage?
-generativity vs stagnation
What is the ego crisis and ego strenth of the late adulthood stage?
-integrity vs despair
What is object relations?
-individual's symbolized relations to other person's (such as parents)
What is symbiosis?
period of when the infant is w/ its mother
What occurs if child is separated too early or far from the mother?
-separation anxiety occurs
What is self-object?
-refers to someone who's important in satisfying your needs
What is mirroring?
-responding to soemone in an empathic and acceptable way.
What is attachment?
-emotional connection
What is an example of a secure attachment?
-reflected by normal distress when the mother leaves and the baby is happy
What is an example of ambivalent/ resistant attachment?
-baby is clingy and becomes unusually upset when the mother leaves
-response to the mother's return mixes approval with rejections and anger
What is an example of the avoidment pattern of attachment?
-infant stays calm when the mothe rleaves and responds to her return in an avoiding, rejecting way.
What is static reasoning?
-a characteristic in which the young child assumes that the world is unchanging
what is irreversibility?
-a characteristsic in which the young child fails to reconize that reversing a process can sometimes restore whatever existed b/f the trans. occurred.
What is synchrony?
-coordinated interaction b/t the caregiver and the infant who respond to each other w/ split second timing.
-infants will imitate facial and mouth movement of their parents.
What is the social cognitive theory?
-perspective that highlights how school age children advances in learning, cognition, and culture, building on maturation and experiance to become more articulate, insightful, and competent
What is social perception?
-refers to the process through which people interpret informaiton about others, draw inferences about people, and develope mental represenatations of them. Social perception influences whether you see a person as hostile, friendly, repugnant, likable, or lovable.
It also helps to determine how you explain why epople behave the way they do.
What is schema?
-coherent organized set of beliefs and expectations.
What is assimiliation?
-the incorporation of new information into existing knowledge
What is accomodation?
-adjustment of a schema into new information
What is equilibration?
adolescents experiance cognitive conflict or a sense of disequilibrium in their attempt to understand the world
What is attributions?
-describes the process people go through to explain the causes of behavior, including their own.
What is an internal attribution?
-reflects the characteristics of a person
What is an external attribution?
-reflects causes that arise not from the person but from the situation
What is a consensus?
-degree to which other people's behavior is similar to that of the person in question
What is consistency?
-the degree to which the behavior occurs repeatedly in a particular situation.
What is distinctiveness?
-depends on the predictability of behavior in various situations.
What does internal attribtuion occur?
-most likly when there is low consensus, high consistency, and low distinctivness
What is attributional biases?
-tendencies to systematically distort ones behavior
What is fundamental attribtuion error?
-wide spread tendecy to attribute the behavior of others to internal factors.
What is seserving bias?
-tendecy to take credit for success (attribtuing it to one is personal characteristsics or efforts) but to blame external causes to failure.
What is classical conditioning?
-occurs when a conditioned stimulus is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus which naturally brings about an unconditioned response.
-eventually the conditioned stimulus will elicit a response knwon as the conditioned response even when abn uncondtioned stimulus is not present.
What is a condtioned response?
-a response that accomplishes a function.
-classical conditioning porduces an adaptive, automatic response to a signal that predicts an event.
What is delayed condtioning?
-presenting the condtioned stimulus shortly before the unconditioned stimulus but removing both at the same time.
-most effective method of pairing the stimuli
What is extinction?
-if the uncoditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the condtioned stimulus, the condtioned response eventually disappaears
What is stimulus generalization?
-condtioned responses occur after stimuli that are suimilar but not identical to condtioned stimuli
What si spontaneous recovery?
-after extinction has occurred, the condtioned response often reappaears if the condtioned stimulus is presented after some time.
What is recondtioning?
-occurs if the conditioned and unconditoned stimuli are paired once or twice after extinction.
What is higher order condtioning?
-occurs when a new neutral stimulus is associated w/ a conditioned stimulus and itself coems to produce the conditioned response
What si instrumental condtioning?
-process through which an organism learns to emit a response in order to obtain a reward or avoid an aversive stimulus.
What is the law of effect?
-postulated by Edward Thorndike
-any response that produces a reward becomes more likly over time and any response that does not produce a reward becomes less likly over time.
Operant condtioning?
-during instrumental condtioning , an organism leanrs a response by operating on an environment.
What is positive reinforcers?
-stimuli that streghten a response if they are presented after the response occurs (smiles, food, and many other desirable outsomes)
What is negative reinforcers?
-unokesant stimuli such as pain or boredom that streghten a response if they are moved after a response occurs (taking asprin to remove a headache)
What is shaping?
-accomplished by reinforcing successive apporximations
-responses that come successfully closer to the desired outcome
What is the continuous reinforcement schedule?
-delivered every time a particular response occurs
-when reinforment is administered only some of the time, the result is partial/ intermittent reinforment schedual.
What is a fixed ration schedual?
-provides a reinforment following a fixed number of responses.
What is a variable ratio schedule?
call for reinforment after a given number of responses.
What is a fixed interval schedual?
-provides reinforment for the first response that occurs after some fixed time passed since the last reward, regardless of how many responses have been made duirng that interval.
What is variable interval scheduals?
-reinforce the first response after some period of time, but the amount of time varies
What is primary reinforcers?
include stimuli that already is reinforcing, like foodm water or the relief of pain.
What are secondary reinforcers?
-rewards that people fo animals learn to like.
What is punishment?
-presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasant stimulus
-reinforcement stregthens behavior while punishment weakens it.
What si escape condtioning?
-takes place when an organism laerns to makle a response in order to end an avesive stimulus or a negative reinforcer.
What is avoidance conditoing?
When an animal or person responds to a signal in a way that avoids exposure to an aversive stimulus.
What is negative reinforcement?
-the process of stregthening behavior by following it with the removal of a negative reinforcer.
What is observational learning?
-the process of learning by watching others
What is a model?
-person who is watched
What are the 4 requirements of obeservational learning?
-ability to produce the behavior
What is the attention of observational learning?
-you cannot learn unless you pay reasonably close attention to what is happenign around you.
What is retention of observational learning?
-you must only attend to the observed behavior but also remeber it at some alter time
What is the ability ot produce the behavior of observational learning?
-you must be capable of performing the act
What is motivation ofobservational learning?
-you will only perform the act only if there is some motivation or reason to do so
What are symbolic models?
-figures on television, movies, magazines, and books
What is vicarious learning?
-Process of learning by seeing or hearing about the consequences of other people's actions.
What are social reinforcers?
-include smiles, hugs, praise, apporval, itnerest and attention from others
What is self-reinforcment?
-people will reward themesleves after doing something that they;ve set out to do.
What is an example of adaptive training?
-student begins with a very easy version of a skill and then attempts gradually more difficult versions.
What is guided training?
-provides support that prevent the learner from making disruptive ior dangerour mistakes as skill developes.
What is overlearning?
-surest way to maintain a skill by practicing it well beyond intial mastery
What are sex roles?
-behavior patterns that people in a given culture see as more apprpriate in one sex than that of the other.
What do negative expectations do?
-can cause people to stop putting forth an effort to succeed the conviction that success won;t come leads to a pattern of low motivation and reduced effort-learned helplessness.
What is locus of control?
-a dimension of beliveing that your outcomes are caused by yourself (internal) or by external forces.
What is aversion therapy?
-shock or pain with behavior to be extinguished
-this supposedly makes the behavior unpleasant
What is escape conditioning?
-do the right thing to escape shock or pain
What are the behavior therapies of personality psychology?
-aversion therapy
-escape therapy
-reward what you want and ignore what you don't want
-token economy
-behavior exchange
-systematic desensitization
What is token economy?
-assumes positive behavior becomes internal over time
What is behavior exchange?
-mutual reinforcement
What is client centered therapy?
-client takes responsibility for his/her own improvment
-therapist displays empathy and unconditionaol positive regard.
What is the therapist's role in client centered therapy?
-to remove pressure of conditions of worth by remaining non-directive and non-evaluative, showing no emotion and giving no advice
-helps client clarify feelings, cognitions, and experiances
What is constructive alternativism?
-people decide for themselves what constructs do apply to events
What are personal constructs?
-mental representations used to interpret events
How are constructs refined?
-by activly using them in familiar ways causing refinement.
What is a rep test used for?
-to measure a person's constructs
What is fixed role therapy?
-a way of getting people to engage in behaviors that they would not ordinary engage in.
What is Festiger's theory of social comparison?
-people use other people as a basis of comparison.
What is a referance group?
-the categories of people to which you see yourself as belonging and to which you habitually compare yourself
What are social norms?
-learned, socially-based rules that prescibe what people shoukld or should not do in various activiites
What is repricity?
-social norm that is the redency to respond to others as they have acted towards you
What is Social perception?
refers to the process throigh which people itnerpret information about others, draw in inferances about people and develop mental representations of them
What is a schema?
-coherent organized set of beliefs and expectations
What are attributions?
-describes the process pople go through to explain the causes of behavior, including their own.
What is the criteria for attributions?
What is concensus?
degree to whom other people's behavior is similar to that of the person in question
What is ontology?
-study of one's core being
What is humanistic psychology/ Human Potential Movement?
-reflect the idea that everyone has the potential for growth and development
-no one is inherently bad or unowrthy
-the goal of humanistic psychology is to help people realize this about themselves so they'll have a chance to grow.
What is actualization?
-growth process
-tendency to develop capabilities in ways that maintain or enhance the organism
What is self-actualization?
-when actualization promotes maintenence of the self
-moves you toward greater autonomy (independece) and self-sufficiency
-expands or enriches your life experiances, it enhances creativiity
What is congruence?
0wholeness or itnegration wihtin the person
What is organismic valuing process?
refers to the idea that the organinism automatically evaluates its experiances and actions to tell whther they're actualizing.
-if they arent, the organismic valuing process creatres a nagging sense that something isn't right
What is a fully functuioning person according to Carl Rogers?
-dscribes someone who is self-actualizing
-they are open to experiancing these feelings, aren't threatened by them, no matter what the feelings are
-they trust the feeligns rather that question them
What is affection?
-without special condition, w/ no strings attached, is unconditional positive regard
-sometimes affection is only given if certainconditions are satisfied (condtional positive regard)
What are conditions of worth?
-condtions under which the person is judged to be worth or positive regard
What are the 3 needs that must be satisfied to have a life of growth, integrity, and well-being?
-the needs are autonomy (self-determination), competence, and relatedness
What is relatedness?
-refers to having a sense of self-determination and having a genuine connection to others
What is the ideal self?
-an image of the kind of person youw ant to be.
What is the actual self?
-is what you think you're really like as a person right now
What is self-handicapping?
-acting to crate the very conditions that tend to produce a failure
What are second order needs?
safety and security
-shelter from the weather, protection against predators, etc
Whata re first order needs?
-food, water, air, etc
What is the third order of needs?
-social needs
-love and belongingness
-companionship, affection, and accpetance from others
What is the 4th order of needs?
-esteem needs
-include the need for a sense of mastery and power and a sense of appreciation from others
What is the highest order of needs?
-tendecy to become whatever you are capable of
What are Transcendent self-actulizers?
-people invested in experiances of self-actualization that it becomes the most precious aspect of their lives.
they are more consciously motivated by universal values or goals outside themselves
What is peak experiance?
-moments of intense self-actualization
What are personality disorders?
characterized by chronic interpersonal differences and problems with ones identity or sense of self
What is teleology?
-concenpt that an individual's goals direct his or her current behavior
What is attitude?
-the elarned tendecy to respond to an object in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way
What is overcompensation?
exaggerated attempt by individuals to voercome feelings of inferiority by acting superior
What is fictional finalism?
an individual's attempt to create goals
what is the system of life?
-unique ways in which people pursue their goals
What is the concept of creative self?
-implies that each of us creates our own personalities and that we activly construct it out of our experiances adn heredities
What are Adler's 4 major types?
-ruling type
-Getting type
-avoiding type
-socially useful type
What is the ruling type?
-lack social interests anf courage
-when threatened, try to reduce feelign sof anxiety by acting in an antisocuial way
-can exploit others and harm others in order to accomplish their goals
What is the gettign type?
-individuals who are relativly passive and make little effort to resolve their own problems
-instead, they use their cvharm to persuade others to help them
What is the avoiding type?
-people who do not have confidence necessary for solving their own problems
-instead ofg struggling with problems, they typically try to side stem them, thereby avoiding defeat
What is the socially useful type?
-people who facfe life confidentll
-they are fully able to act accordance with social interest
-they ar epreapred to cooperate with others adn contribute to the welfare of others
What is criterion A for personality disorders?
-pattern must be manifested ina t least 2 of the 2 areas (cognition, affectivity,, itneropersonal functioning or impulse control)
What is criterion B for personality disorders?
-pattern muyst be inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations
What is criterion C for personality disorders?
-patterern leads to clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning
What is criterion D for personality disorders?
-pattern is stable and of long duration and its onset can be traced back to at least adolescence or early childhood
What is criterion E for personality disordes?
-pattern is not better accounted for as a manifestation or consequence of another mental disorder
What is Cluster A for personality disorders?
-includes pa\ranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personlaity disorders
What is cluster B for personality disorders?
- includes histrionic, narcissisrtuic, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders
What is cluster C for perosnality disorders?
-includes avoidant, dependent, and obsessvie-compulsive personality disorders
What is a paranoud personality disorder?
-pervaisive suspicousness and distrust of others, leading to numerous interpersoal difficulites
-tend to see themselves as blameless, instead blaming otehrs for their own mistakes and fairlures
What's a good way to treat scziphrenia?
-low doses of antipsychotic drugs and anti-depressants
What's a good way to treat cluster C disorders?
-short-term psychotherapy
Whart's a good way to treat avoidant persoanlity disorders?
-cognitive bvehavior treatment and antidepressants
What's a good way to treat social phobias
What is an antisocial persoanlity disorder?
-tendecy to persistantly disregard and violarte the rights of others
-they do this through a combination of deceitful, aggressive and antisocial behaviors
What is psychopathy?
-has the features of anti-social personality disorder but includes the lack of empathy, inflated and arrogant self-aopprasial, and glib and superficial charm
What is the first dimension of psychopathy?
--first dimension involves affective and interpersonal core of the disorder and refklects traits such as lack of remorse, callounerss, selfishness, and an exploitative use of others
What is the second dimension of psycopathy?
-reflects behavior such as impulsivity, antisocial, and socially deviant lifestyles
What are included in adverse environments?
-marital conflicts or divorce, legal problems, parental anxiety or depression, parental alcohol, and drug abuse problems.
What is a somatoform disorder?
-a group of conditions that involve physical symptoms and complaints suggestuing the presence of a medical condition but without any evidence of physcial pathology to acount for them.
What is a dissociative disorder?
-a group of conditions involving disruptions in a person's normally integrated fucntions or consciouness, memory, identitym or perception
What is dissociation?
-refers to the human mind's capacity to engage in complex mental activity in channels split off from or independent of conscous awareness
What is hypochondriasis?
-people occupied with fears of having a serious disease or with the idea thar tet actually have a disease, even though they do not
How do you help with hypochondriacs?
-by cognitive behavioral therapy
What are the criteria for diagnosis of somatization disorder?
-four pain symptoms
-2 gastrointestinal symptoms
-one sexual symptom
-1 pseudoneurological symptom
What is body dysmorphic disorder?
-involves the preoccupation with certain aspects of the body
-person is obsessed with the perceived or imagined flaw of their appearance
What is derealization?
-one's sense of the outside world is temp. lost
What is depersonalization?
-one's sense of ones own self and one's own reality is temp. lost
What is depersonalization disorder?
-people have persistent or recurrent expriances of feeling detached from their own bodies and mental processes
What is retrograde amnesia?
-partial or total inability to recall or identify oreviously acquired information or past experiances
What is anterograde amnesia?
partial or total inabliity to retain new information
What is dissociative amnesia?
-usually limited to a failure to recall previously stored personal information when that failure cannot be accounted for by ordinary forgetting
What is dissociative fugue?
-a person not only goes into an amnesic state but also leaves his or her home surrounding and becomes confused about his or her identity, sometimes assuming a new one
What is Dissociative identity disorder?
-disorder where a person manifests 2 or more distinct identities or personality states that alternate in some way in taking control of behavior.
-each identity may have a different personal history, self image, and name.