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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Law of Effect
To explain the acquisition o behavior; he recast the law in terms of the changes in the probability of responding produced the application of reinforcers and punishment
Operant Analysis
Skinners initial formulations
Scientific Behaviorism
Looked at behaviorism in a scientific way, broke it down from Watson to even more saying A happened cause of B, to more multiple antecedents with a physiological background caused for this to happen
Answer questions about biology and physics but not about how we can have people embrace the ideas, Seem to provide answers to questions but they do not, brings curiosity to an end
Functional Analysis
The explanation of how behavior and external forces are causally related.
Free Will vs. Determinism
Skinner believed in Determinism over Free Will saying your environment elicited responses. If you believe in free will you think you should be rewarded and punished for your environment, punishing a poor person cause their poor. Are wants are determined by environment, by a CPU because something in the environment prompted you too. Control is good, parents over a 12 year old. Although seems good could never be done on humans, skinner says they have too much noise (background expereince)
Scientific Ananlysis
Focuses blame and credit to environment. We admire figure skater but don't realize how much time and effort they put in.
Two objections to Skinner
that skinner sought to manipulated people without their being aware of it and that skinner sough to set up as the arbiter of good and evil.
Personality for the Perspective of a Radical Behaviorist
Thought that personality was a systematic examination of the idiosyncratic learning history and unique genetic background of the individual. Involves the discovery of the unique set of relationships between the behavior of an organism and its reinforcing or punishing consequences.
Operant Conditioning
The establishment of an association between behavior and its consequences. The occurrence of behavior is made more or less probable.
The Three-Term Contingency
The environmental or situational events in which a response or behavior occurs (that is, the event that precedes the behavior) the behavior itself; and the environmental stimuli (consequences) that follow the behavior
Is a rule stating that some event (B) will occur if and only if another event(A) occurs.
The ability to determine in which situations (stimuli) a behavior will be rewarded and when they behavior will not be rewarded in the same manner.
Stimulus Control
Our responses are differentially controlled by antecedent stimuli or situations.
Stimuli used to facilitate the development of resonses.
Discriminative Stimulus
When a prompt consistently precedes reinforcement of a behavior
The inability to discriminate stimuli in different situations
Stimulus Gerneralization
Occurs if a behavior that is reinforced in one situation also increases in other situations, even though it is not reinforced in those situations
The consequence after the behavior is done, a behavior will increase in frequency when it is followed either by the presentation of a positive reinforcer of by the removal of a punisher.
Positive Reinforcement
An increase in frequency of a behavior when that behavior is followed by positive reinforcers
Primary Reinforcers
Automatically or naturally reinforcing, food water, sex.
Secondary Reinforcers
acquire their reinforcing properties with association with primary reinforcements, or other conditioned reinforces.
Negative reinforcers
Aversive stimuli, or punisher - for example electric shock, loud noises, bright lights and physical assault.
Negative reinforcement
Refers to the removal of an aversive stimulus following a response
refers to the decrease in the frequency of a response when that response is followed immediately by certain consequences.
Positive punishment
Aversive events or punisher can be applied to behavior to make its occurrence less probable.
Primary Punishers
are stimuli inherently aversive, for example, electric shock, loud noises, bright lights and physical assault.
Secondary punishers
acquire their aversive properties by being paired with primary punishers or other conditioned punishers.
Negative punishment
The removal of a positive stimulus of a behavior also decreases its occurrence.
Response cost
Involves a penalty of some kind.
Time out from reinforcment
The removal of all positive reinforcers for a certain period of time.
Skinner's view on punishment
We should shun the use of punishment to control behavior, punishment is only a temporary fix, it can give emotional responses that are incompatible with appropriate behavior and punishment may create strong conflict in people
The termination of a certain behavior
Operant Extinction
The removal of a behavior by withholding the reinforcement.
Teaching a new behavior by reinforcing responses that approximate it.
Successive Approximations
Behaviors increasingly similar to the final goal are reinforced until eventually the goal is achieved.
Schedules of Reinforcement
The frequency that a person is reinforced.
Continuous Reinforcement
A schedule in which each performance is followed by a reinforcer - produces higher rates of response than behavior reinforced only intermittently.
Intermittent Reinforcement
Is much more resistant to extinction than behavior acquired on a continues reinforcement.
Intermittent vs. Continous
Intermittent humans are hardworking, ambitious and competitive. Continuous lower animals show greater signs of emotional reactions and low frustration tolerance when their behaviors are subject to extinction
Fixed-Ratio Scheudle
An absolute number of behaviors is required before reinforcement is applied.
Fixed-interval schedule
the first performance that occurs after an absolute amount of time has elapsed is reinforced. Low just after reinforcement and high right before.
Self-Control Processes
How the individual acts to alter the variables of which other parts of his behavior are functions.
Physical restraints
Putting hand over mouth to stop from laughing, Walk away from someone who has just insulted us. Physically doing something to stop a certain behavior response
Physical Aids
Stimulants to help us study, glasses, hearing aids.
Changing the stimulus condtitions
Change the stimulus responsible for it. Remove candy from eyesight. Smokers leave matches at home. People are removing a discriminative stimulus that induces unwanted behavior. Also can add stimuli to enhance behavior, mirror in front of mirror.
Manipulating emotional conditions
Emotional changes in ourselves for purposes of control. Yoga to alleviate stress.
Performing alternative responses
keep ourselves from Engaging in behavior that leads to punishment by energetically engaging in something else.
Positive self-reinforcement
We reward ourselves for commendable behavior.
Punish themselves for failure to reach self-generated goals.
A schedule-of-reinforcement approach
Skinner dismissed most because they described what a person was doing something but did not explain and could not manipulate, the main goal of science. Said paiget's stages were ok, but not adequate explanation for their behavior. We learn to discriminate through learned lessons, we have simple skills are learned at first; later on, more and more complex behaviors are acquired and utilized. Humans not passive, instead they exercise self-control over their environments by actively selecting and changing the environment to satisfy their own needs.
The development of Normal and Abnormal Personalities
Said no difference in normal and abnormal focus on external determinants and not the internal. Did not agree with freud because it is imprecise and ambiguous. Did like freud because he contributed to our understanding of behavior and that many of his ideas can be translated into scienctific terms.
A unique set of transactions with the environment