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48 Cards in this Set

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Where does the term philosophy come from?
The term philosophy comes from the Greek philein, "to love," and sophia, "wisdom"; it means the love or pursuit of wisdom. Wisdom denotes not merely knowing about something but knowing what ought to be done and how to do it.
List 5 general issues where fundamental differences in philosophical assumptions may occur.
1) Freedom vs Determinism
2) Hereditary vs Environmental
3) Uniqueness vs Universality
4) Proactive vs Reactive
5) Optimistic vs Pessimistic
Define the fundamental philosophical differences in philosophical assumptions regarding Hereditary vs Environmental.
Theorists differ over whether inherited and inborn characteristics or factors in the environment have the more important influence on a person's behavior.
Define the fundamental philosophical differences in philosophical assumptions regarding the issues of Uniqueness vs Universality.
Some theorists believe that each individual is unique and cannot be compared with others. Others contend that people basically very simular in mature.
Define the fundamental philosophical differences in philosophical assumptions regarding the issues of Proactive vs reactive.
Proactive theories view human beings as acting on their initiative rather than simply reacting. The sources ssssof behavior are perceived as lying within the individual, who does more than just react to stimuli from the outside world.
Define the fundamental philosophical differences in philosophical
assumptions regarding Optimistic vs Pessimistic.
Do significant changes in personality and behavior occur throughout the course of a lifetime? If an individual is motivated, can genuine changes be effected in personality? Some personality theories are decidedly more optimistic and hopeful than others concerning these possibilities.
Define epiphany. Where does the word come from?
Epiphany comes from the Greek epiphaneia, which means "appearance" or "manifestation". It means a perception of essential meaning, a special act of knowing, an extraordinary intuition that transcends everyday experience.
What is the difference between scientific statements and philosophical assumptions?
Scientific statements must be open to falsification. Science is required to indicite the conditions under which its statements might be proven incorrect. There is no way to construct an empriical test that would let us falsify a philosophical assumption.
What are the three criteria for evaluating the philosophical assumptions that underly a personality theory? What is the fourth criterion that these three criteria add up to?
1) Coherence
2) relevance
3) comprehensiveness
These three criteria add up to the fourth criterion, Compellingness.
Define paradigm.
A paradigm is a model or concept of the world that is shared by the members of a community and that governs their activities.
Define trait. Give some examples of traits.
The concept of trait refers to a determining tendency or predisposition to respond in a certain way. Examples of traits are emotional stability and introversion versus extroversion.
When evaluating personality theories, what must you look at first?
First you need to determine which assertions function as philosophical assumptions and which function as scientific statements. Philosophical assumptions are based on a vision of ultimate reality, whereas scientific statements are based on empirical observation.
Name a primary tool in the clinical approach to personality, then define it.
A primary tool in the clinical approach to personality is the development of a case history, a carefully drawn biography of an individual.
Name three primary research approaches used in personality.
Three primary research approaches used in personality are:
1) the clinical approach
2) the psychometric approach
3) and the experimental approach.
Name a major statistical tool used by psychometricians.
The correlation is a major statistical tool used by psychometricians.
What is considered to be the most precise method of psychological research?
The experimental method is considered the most precise method of psychological research.
What is the difference between macro theories of personality and
micro theories of personality?
Macro theories of personality seek to be global and emphasizes
comprehension of the whole person. Micro theories of personality
have resulted from specific research focused on limited aspects of
human behavior.
Repeated observations of the same phenomenon under specified
conditions lead to what kind of agreement among observers?
Repeated observations of the same phenomenon under specified
conditions lead to consensual validation or agreement among
observers.
What is the second thing that you need to determine when evaluating
personality theories?
You must then ask how well the philosophical assumption fulfill the
criteria of philosophy.
What kind of data are empirical statements based on?
Empirical statements may be based on objective data or subjective
data. The difference between them lies in the position of the
observer. Objective knowledge: the position is I--the self looking
outward on the world as an object. Subjective knowledge: the
position is I--me--the self looking inward on its own experience as
the object.
What do you consider with regards to Verifiability?
Are the statements ultimately based on empirical observation, and
does the theory clearly specify how they can be confirmed and
refuted?
The scientist also uses definitions, statements that are true
because of the way in which we have agreed to use the words.
Define operational definition. What is the value of operational
definitions?
An operational definition specifies which behaviors are included in
the concept. The value of operational definitions lies in giving
us a common ground of reference.
Define usefulness.
The final criteria is usefulness, the ability to generate
information that can assist us in living.
In order to qualify as scientific, statements must fulfill the
criterion of verifiability. Define verifiability.
Verifiability: they must ultimately be based on empirical
observations, and the theory behind them has to specify how they
can be confirmed or refuted.
List the 4 criteria that can be used to evaluate philosophical
assumptions.
The following criteria can be used to evaluate the assumptions you
identify:
1) Coherence
2) Relevance
3) Comprehensiveness
4) Compellingness
In the process of scientific investigations, the personality
theorist frequently develops more than one hypotheses.
Occasionally, the scientist is left with rival hypotheses. How
does the scientist decide between them?
Four criteria have been used:
1) Compatibility
2) Predictive Power
3) Simplicity
4) Usefulness
List the 5 basic philosophical assumptions.
1) Freedom vs Determinism
2) Hereditary vs environmental
3) Uniqueness vs Universality
4) Proactive vs Reactive
5) Optimistic vs Pessimistic
List the 5 criteria that can be used to evaluate scientific
statements.
1) Verifiability
2) Compatibility
3) Predictive Power
4) Simplicity
5) Usefulness
What are philosophical assumptions based on and how do they differ
from scientific statements?
Philosophical assumptions are based on a vision of ultimate reality,
whereas scientific statements are based on empirical observations.
What do you consider with regards to Compatibility?
Compatibility: Does the theory build on, and is it consistant with,
other well-established information?
The assessment of personality is a major area in the application of
personality theories to everyday life. Define assessment.
Assessment refers to evaluation or measurement.
What do you consider with regards to Compellingness?
Compellingness: Does it convince you?
What do you consider with regards to Comprehensiveness?
Comprehensiveness: Does the theory encompass a wide array of
phenomena, inclusively covering aspects of the subject it claims to
deal with?
What do you consider with regards to Relevance?
Relevance: Does the theory deal with issues that are important and
meaningful to us today?
What do you look at with regards to Coherence?
Coherence: Is the philosophical position clear, logical, and
consistent?
What does the concept of trait refer to?
The concept of trait refers to a determining tendency or
predisposition to respond in a certain way. Examples of traits are
emotional stability and introversion versus extroversion.
When evaluating personalities, what must you determine first?
First you need to determine which assertions function as
philosophical assumptions and which function as scientific
statements.
What are scientific constructs?
A scientist uses scientific constructs, which are imaginary or
hypothetical and cannot be seen with the naked eye or even with
sophisticated optical equipment, in order to explain what we
observe.
What are the most important statements in science based on?
The most important statements in science are based on scientific
constructs.
Define Compatibility.
Compatibility refers to the agreement of the hypothesis with
previously well-established information.
Define Predictive Power.
Predictive Power refers to the range or scope of the statement.
Scientists seek not only to explain the phenomena that we observe
but also to predict and anticipate them.
Define scientific (or empirical) generalization.
A scientific (or empirical) generalization is a conclusion that
something is true about many or all of the the members of a certain class.
Define simplicity or parsimony.
Simplicity or parsimony: The preferred theory os one that adequately
accounts for the complexity of material in the simplest way.
However, this criteria only comes into play when a rival hypothesis
generates identical consequences, which is a rare occurrence.
Define the issue of Freedom vs Determinism.
The belief that people have control over their behaviors and
understand the motives behind them or whether they believe that the
behavior of people is basically determined by internal or external
forces over which they have little, it any control.
Define the issue of Hereditary vs Environmental.
Theorists differ over whether inherited and inborn characteristics
or factors in the environment have the more important influence on
a person's behavior.
Define the issue of Optimistic vs Pessimistic.
Do significant changes in personality and behavior occur throughout
the course of a lifetime? If an individual is motivated, can
genuine changes be effected in personality? Some personality
theories are decidedly more optimistic and hopeful that others
concerning these possibilities.
Define the issue of Proactive vs Reactive.
Proactive theories view human beings as acting on their initiative
rather than simply reacting. The sources of behavior are perceived
as lying within the individual, who does more than just react to
stimuli from the outside world.
Define the issue of Uniqueness vs Universality.
Some theorists believe that each individual is unique and cannot be
compared with others. Others contend that people are basically
very simular in nature.