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52 Cards in this Set

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What tendencies to behaviorist reject?
traits, tendencies, defenses, and motivation
Behaviorist reject the notion of tendencies and traits influincing behavior. What then drives our behaviors according to behaviorists?
an individual's behaviors are a result of their DIFFERENT LEARNING EXPERIENCES!
From what philosipher is an idea associated with behaviorism? what is the idea?
John Locke's proposal of "tabula rasa" -or blank slate, on which infants record experiences of life.
Who was the first behaviorist?
Ivan Pavlov
what now infamous "modern learning system" did Pavlov discover?
Classical conditioning
In pavlov's famous salivation study what served as the UCR, CR, UCS, and CS?
UCS --> Food
CS --> Bell

UCR --> Salivation
CR --> Salivation
what two stimuli or responses are the same?
Neutral stimuli and Conditioned stimulus (Bell)

Unconditioned and Conditioned response (Salivation)
Conditioned response occurs in response to stimuli that are similar to condition stimulus
Generalization
conditioned response would not occur for all possible stimuli
Discrimination
happens when the pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimulus stops.

-conditioned response becomes less frequent

-the association weakens over time until it disappears
Extinction
How does behaviorism predict our behavior?

(Conditioning as basis for personality)
Neutral stimuli previously associated with "likes" and events with positive are strengthened and their occurence tends to increase.

Meanwhile other behaviors who cause negative reaction are primed as "DISLIKES"
Pavlov's constructs provide the basis for explaining...
the EMOTIONAL ASPECT of personality
(including: Phobias, neurotic behavior)
How did pavlov condition neuroticism in his dogs?
Pavlov's dogs were taught to discriminate between a circle and an elipse and became neurotic when the two stimuli were generalized (could no longer be discriminated)
How does Pavlov's study suggest neuroticism is conditioned?
Neuroticism is a conditioned response fostered by an environment in which individual is required to discriminate between nearly indistinguishable stimuli.
What example were we given of behaviorism conditioning neurtoicism?
Children with unstable parents are often neurotic because they are inconsistently praised and/or punished.
What did Pavlov think about the application of conditioning?
Pavlov thought conditioning was universal to all animals. We now know some animals are much easier to condition than others.
Who is given credit as the FOUNDER OF BEHAVIORISM?
J.B Watson
What was Watson's position on introspection? Why are these so important?
THE BASIS FOR BEHAVIORISM!

He believed that since they were unobservable, they were unscientific and should not be studied. He believed only behavior which can be seen should be studied.
What was WATSON'S study of Little albert?
Watson conditioned an infant to fear a rat by pairing its presence with a lound noise.
What was unique about Watson's little albert study?
Watson showed generalization when Albert began to fear not only rats but objects resembling rats
What did WATSON propose as a result of the little albert study?
Watson believed this is how personality is formed. In other words, emotional responses to certain stimuli become generalized to other stimuli/events.
In WATSON's little albert study, what are the:

-UCS
-CS
-UCR
-CR
UCS- Loud noise
CS- Rat (or generalization)
UCR- Fear (crying, screaming)
CR- Fear (crying, screaming)
What was the study of Little Peter about?
Counter conditioned fear of Rabbits in another infant.
How did Watson accomplish this? What form of therapy now uses this technique?
By keeping the infant happy as the rabbit came closer. FIRST CASE OF SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION!
Radical behaviorism

-pioneered by
-beliefs
- conditioning
Radical behaviorism was pioneered by B.F Skinner who believed that personality is a set of responses to the environment.

Skinner believed behaviors were conditioned by OPERANT CONDITIONING (condition by consequence)
What is operant conditioning?
A system of conditioning where a behavior becomes more conditioned if a positive consequence occurs from it. The reverse is true.
B.F Skinner was able to train animals to do things that were far from native behaviors by a process called
SHAPING
What is shaping?
Reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior until the target behavior is obtained.
What was operant theories position on personality?
it was not uniquely human and nothing more than a set of responses to environmental cues.
Reinforcement contigencies:

presenting the organism with something it wants (food)
Positive reinforcement
Reinforcement contigencies:

removes something the organism does not want (removal of electric shock)
Negative reinforcement
Why are the two previous situations called REINFORCEMENTS?
Because both will increase probability that the behavior will be repeated
either removing a positive reinforcer or presenting a negative reinforcer
Punishment
Punishment does not necessarily weaken the undesired behavior. WHY?
Causes a person to become FEARFUL and usually stops all behavior not just bad behavior.

Tells what NOT TO DO not what is the RIGHT THING TO DO.

Causes aggression
Why do parents punish when they know it does very little to curb bad behavior?
It is rewarding to the parents.
Reinforcement schedules:

A Continuous reinforcement schedule where every response is reinforced is called:
FIXED
Reinforcement schedules:

Partial reinforcement-
response is sometimes followed by reinforcement, and sometimes not

This is called:
Variable.
response is reinforced after a set amount of time has passed
Fixed interval
organism must respond a set number of times before being reinforced
Fixed ratio
time between reinforcement may vary
variable interval
number of responses may vary between received reinforcement
Variable ratio
____________ ALWAYS has a greater resistance to extinction
VARIABLE reinforced behavior.
Which schedule of reinforcement are notorious for the subject pausing after being reinforced?
Fixed schedules (both interval and ratio).
Which schedule of reinforcement produces less extinction?
VAriable schedules (either ratio or interval)
WHICH SCHEDULE PRODUCES THE HIGHEST RATE OF RESPONDING? WHY?
Variable ratio because it has no pauses (unlike FR).
Which schedules generate FASTER RESPONSE RATES? Which generate MORE RESPONSE RATES?
RATIO

INTERVAL
Behaviorist thoughts on internal processes:

- Emotions, thoughts...
- Free will?
Emotions and thoughts like other internal processes DO OCCUR they just DO NOT CAUSE BEHAVIOR!

No evidence that people have free will. all behavior is brought about by cues in the environment.
Skinner's Walden Two.
Skinner's book about a utopian society. Skinner defines culture as a set of reinforcement contigencies that reinforce several behaviors and discourage others.

Skinner believed culture engineering was the application of operant conditioning to improve society.
A stimulus capable of reducing a drive is a reinforcer, and the actual drive reduction is the reinforcement
CLARK HULL'S drive reduction theory
In this theory, what is the MOTIVATIONAL CONCEPT?
THE DRIVE.

The stronger the stimulus, the strogner the drive and the greater the motivation to reduce the drive.

f.e the hungrier you are the more you look for food and the more motivation gathers to find something to eat.
Aggression is always the result of blocking, or frustrating the individual’s efforts to attain a goal
Frustration-agression hypothesis
How is the frustration-agression hypothesis similar to Freud's displacement?
Frustration that has become agression may be taken out on a different target.
(Rats shocked attacked other rats and even toys)