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125 Cards in this Set

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Involves the consistency of a test.
An enduring and unique cluster of characteristics that may change in response to different situations.
Involves the consistency or uniformity of conditions and procedures for administering a test.
Test-Retest Method
Reliability Method that giving a subject the same test twice over a period of time to see if the two sets of scores on the tests are correlated.
Equivalent-Forms Method
Reliability method which consists of two comparable forms of a test.
Split-Halves Method
Reliability method where a tes is administered once and then the scores of half the test are compared with the scores of the other half.
Refers to whether the test measures what it is intended to measure.
Birth of psychology took place when and where?
late 19th century Germany
Wilhelm Wundt
established psychology's first laboratory in 1879 at the University of Leipzig.
the school of psychology, founded by John B. Watson, that focused on psychology as the study of overt behavior rather than of mental processes.
Behaviorists' View on Personality:
In this view, personality is nothing more than the accumulation of learned responses or habit systems. Stimuli are put in, and appropriate responses, learned from past experience, spill out. No space conception of consciousness. (pg 7)
Sigmund Freud's theory of personality and system of therapy for treating mental disorders.
"fake dichotomy"
refers to the longstanding
and controversy-generating dichotomy between the effect of the situation versus the effect of the person on behavior . . . is and always was a fake dichotomy. And so the issue was resolved by accepting an interactionist
approach, agreeing that enduring personal traits, changing aspects of the situation,and the interaction between them must all be considered in order to provide a full explanation for human nature.
(pg 10)
Predictive Validity
how well a test score predicts future behavior.
Content Validity
refers to the test's individual items or questions. Evaluation of how well the content of the test is focused on revealing/measuring what is being tested
Construct validity
relates to a test's ability to measure a construct - a hypothetical or theoretical component of behavior, such as a trait or motive. (Ex. of construct: Anxiety)
a hypothetical or theoretical component of behavior
Ex: Love, Hate, Sorrow
5 Major Approached to Personality Assessment:
- self-report or objective inventories
- projective techniques
- clinical interviews
- behavioral assessment procedures
- thought-sampling assessment procedures
self-report inventory approach
method of assessment which involves asking people to report on themselves by answering questions about their behavior and feelings in various situations.
(paper-and-pencil test- takers indicate how closely each statement describes their characterictics or how much they agree with each item.)
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
is the most widely used psychological test. A true-false test consisting of 567 items for assessing personality; this test is a valid measure which can discriminate between emotionally healthy or disturbed persons.
revised many times to be more valid and current
California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
Self-Report inventory. Developed in 1957 and revised in 1987, designed for use with normal people age 13 and older. Provides scores on 17 personality dimensions.
Projective Tests
were developed to probe into the unconscious. The tests present a stimulus, such as an inkblot or a picture which can then be interpreted.

Not high in reliability or validity.
TThe Rorschach Inkblot Technique
is a test with 10 cards of black and sometimes colored ink. The subject is asked what they perceive in the inkblots.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
consists of 20 vague pictures. The subject is asked to make up a story about what they perceive in the pictures.
Ideographic research
involves the intensive study of a small number of research participants, where the goal of this approach is to gain enough knowledge about a subject to aid in treatment.
Nomothetic research
involves comparing and analyzing large samples of research participants, with the goal of obtaining data that can be generalized to a broad range of people
Clinical method
used in personality research is the case study, which researches the patient’s past and present to help with their emotional problems.
Experimental Method
technique for studying cause-and-effect relationships between variables. Involves the manipulation of independent variables and observation of the effects of that manipulation on dependent variables.
independent variables
variables actively manipulated by the experimenter so that their effects on individual behavior can be observed. May be called a treatment variable.
dependent variables
changes in behavior that occur as a result of the manipulation of conditions by an experimenter. The variable that is measured.
experimental group(s)
includes those research participants to whom the experimental treatment is given
control group
group that does not receive the experimental treatment. It is designed to provide baseline data against which the effects of the independent variable can be accurately judged.
Correlational Method
investigates relationships between variables, and how behavior on one variable changes or differs as a function of the other variable.
Cannot determine cause and effect!
correlation coefficient (r)
Ranges from -1.00 to +1.00.
positive correlation
increases in the scores on one variable are associated with increases in the scores on the other variable. r = +.01 to +1.00
negative correlation
increases in the scores on one variable are associated with decreases in the scores on the other. r = -.01 to -1.00
no relationship (correlation coefficient)
the distributions of scores on the two variables are random. r = 0.00
Free Will/Determinism:
Do we consciously direct our own actions, or are they governed by other forces?
Theorist's Stance on Human Nature: More Free Will
Are we influenced more by heredity (nature) or by our environment(nurture)?
Theorist's Stance on Human Nature: More Nurture, but some nature
Is our personality fixed by early events in our lives, or can it be affected by experiences in adulthood?
Theorist's Stance on Human Nature: 50/50
is the personality of each human being unique, or are there broad personality pattern that fit large numbers of persons?
Theorist's Stance on Human Nature: More Uniqueness
Are we motivated simply to maintain a physiological balance or state of equilibrium, or does the urge to grow and develop shape our behavior?
Theorist's Stance on Human Nature: More Growth
Are we basically good or evil?

Theorist's Stance on Human Nature: More Optimistic
Born in Moravia, 1856
First Theorist of personality development (psychoanalytic theory)
Psychoanalytic Theory
-attempts to explain personality development, individual functioning, and change.
-places heavy emphasis on the role of biological factors and early childhood experiences in the formation of personality
-developed on studies of his adult patients based on their recollections of their childhood experiences including trauma.
basic elements of the personality; motivating forces that drive behavior and determine its direction.
Instincts have four basic characteristics:
-a source in some bodily deficit
-an aim gratification of the need
-an impetus that propels the person to act
-an object through which the instinct achieves its aim.
"Maintaining Equilibrium"
When the body is in a state of need, we become motivated to restore and maintain equilibrium by satisfying the need.
Basic Instincts
Life Instincts: needs- hunger, thirst, breathing... internal
Life Instincts:
oriented toward growth and development
psychic energy, manifested by the life instincts
-drives a person toward pleasurable thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
Sex Instinct:
most important life instinct, according to Freud.
-Sex becomes our primary motivation
-includes erotic wishes and all pleasurable thoughts/behaviors
Death Instincts:
opposite of life instincts and are destructive in nature
-unconscious drive toward decay, destruction, death, aggression.
-aggressive drive which compels us to destroy, conuquer, and kill
Conscious Forces:
-Refers to those ideas and sensations of which we are aware.
-Play a relatively small role in human personality; corresponds to its ordinary everyday meaning.
Unconscious Forces:
-Refers to the invisible portion of personality below the surface. It operates on the deepest level of personality.
-Consist of those experiences and memories of which we are not aware. Conscious awareness would create tremendous pain and anxiety for us.
-Become the major driving power behind all behaviors; we are not able to control this portion of personality.
Preconscious Forces:
Contains those experiences that are unconscious but that could become conscious with little effort
the most primitive part of personality
-reservoir for all instincts and the libido; consists of unconscious sexual and aggressive instincts
-supplies all the energy for the ego and super ego
-functions to increase pleasure and avoid pain
-driven by the pleasure principle (indiscriminate pleasure seeking and pain avoidance.)
Rational master of the personality
-driven by reality principle
-purpose is to maintain euqilibrium between id forces and reality
-does not thwart id needs, but, helps id meet needs appropriately
moral aspect of personality
contains rules of conduct corresponding to behaviors for which the child has been punished.
contains moral/ideal behaviors for which one should strive (perfection).
defined as a feeling or fear and dread with no obvious cause.
Reality or Objective Anxiety:
involves a fear of tangible dangers in the real world.
-serves to provide information and facilitate self protection.
Neurotic Anxiety:
has its basis in childhood, in a conflict between instinctual gratification and reality.
-As id driven behavior is punished, anxiety increases with regard to the drive to satisfy id urges. Fear of Punishment.
Moral Anxiety:
results from a conflict between the id and the superego.
Id Urges -> Super Ego -> Guilt and Shame
Ego Defense Mechanisms:
are procedures the ego resorts to in order to reduce or remove painful anxiety
*used when the rational techniques employed by the ego fail to work in its effort to: a) reduce tension between id uges, reality and superego b)decrease anxiety
-operate unconsciously
-function to deny or distort reality
Freudian defense mechanism:
Involves unconscious denial of the existence of something that causes anxiety
Freudian defense mechanism:
Involves denying the existence of an external threat or traumatic event
Reaction Formation:
Freudian defense mechanism:
Involves expressing an id impulse that is the opposite of the one truly driving the person.
Freudian defense mechanism:
Involves attributing a disturbing impulse to someone else.
Freudian defense mechanism:
Involves retreating to an earlier, less frustrating period of life and displaying the childish and dependent behaviors characteristic of that more secure time.
Involves shifting id impulses from a threatening or unavailable object to a substitute object that is available
Involves altering or displacing id impulses by displacing id impulses by diverting instinctual energy into socially acceptable behaviors.
Psychosexual Stages of Development
-Personality formed during childhood primarily through parent/child interactions
-Child, driven by id instincts, comes into conflict with parental limits
-Four(4) Stages
a condition where a portion of the libido remains invested in a particular psychosexual stage due to excessive frustration or excessive gratification needs that stage.
Oral Stage:
Order: First Stage
Age: Birth - 1
Characteristics: Mouth is primary erogenous zone; pleasure derived from sucking: id is dominant.
Anal Stage:
Order: Second Stage
Age:1 - 3
Characteristics:Toilet training (external reality) interferes with gratification received from defecation.
Phallic Stage:
Order: 3rd Stage
Age:4 - 5
Characteristics: Incestuous fantasies; Oedipus complex; anxiety; superego development.
Latency Stage:
Order: 4th Stage
Age:5 - Puberty
Characteristics: Period of sublimation of sex instinct.
Order: 5th Stage
Age: Adolescence - Adulthood
Characteristics: Development of sex-role identity and adult social relationships.
Oral incorporative:

(taking in) - occures firts, involves pleasurable stimulation of mouth by other people and by feeding.
Fixation: due to overindulgence during feeding - gullible, unusual optimism, passive, excessive dependence.
Oral Aggressive:

(bitting or spitting out - occurs later during teething process.
Fixation: due to underindulgence during feeding. - envious, manipulative, suspicious.
Anal Aggressive:
defecate when/where chooses
Fixation: defiant, cruel, hostile, destructive, sadistic, disorderly
Anal Retentive:
retention of feces
Fixation: stubborn, stingy, rigid, compulsive, overly conscientious
Oedipus Complex
Used by Freud to describe the desire to have sexual relation with the opposite sex parent. The same sex parent is seen as a rival, so they may become hostile or jealous of the parents' love relationship.
Castration Anxiety:
boy becomes afraid of losing his penis if the father was to discover the boy's love for his mother.
Penis envy:
girl develops this due to the belief that she may have lost her penis.
Phallic Fixation:
lingering forms of castration anxiety or penis envy

personality: narcissistic, feelings of inadequacy, immature adult sexual relationships -- needs to prove continually his or her sexual adequacy.
Genital personality type:
a mature, healty individual who is sexually developed and capable of relating to members of the opposite sex.
Goals of Psychoanalysis:
bringing unconscious conflicts, repressed memories, fears, and thought into conscious awareness
Free Association:
technique in which the therapist encourages patients to report, without restriction, and thoughts that occur to them.
Resistance (in free association:
a blockage or refusal to disclose painful memories.
the expression of emotions that is expected to lead to the reduction of disturbing symptoms.
Dream Analysis:
procedure used to probe the unconscious through interpretation of the patient's dreams.
Manifest Content:
Actual events and objects contained in a dream.
Latent content:
hidden symbolic meaning of the dream's events or objects
Freud's Image of Human Nature:
Nature and Nurture
Past Experience forms
Uniqueness(ego and superego) and Universality(id)
Inferiority Feelings;
are common and the source of all human striving
need to overcome a sense of inferiority and strive for increasingly higher levels of development.
Inferiority Complex:
a child, unable to overcome inferiority feelings intensifies them, developing of a complex
Superiority Complex:
exaggerated opinion of one's abilities and accomplishments.
Fictional Finalism:
-the notion that fictional ideals guide our behavior as we strive toward a complete or whole state of being.
-Adler believed we live our lives around ideals such as the beliefs such as that people are basically good.
-These beliefs influence the ways we perceive and interact with people.
Style of Life:
according to Adler children acquire a set of behaviors designed to compensate for an inferiority that becomes a part of the style of life.
*becomes the guiding framework for all later behaviors
Creative power of self:
creates the style of life. Individuals are not passively shaped by childhood experiences.
Dominant Type:
a dominant ruling attitude with little social awareness
Getting Type:
expects to receive satisfaction from other people and so becomes dependent on them; the most common
Avoiding Type:
Avoids any possibility of failure
Socially Useful Type:
cooperates with others and acts in accordance with their needs
Birth Order:
Adler viewed as a major influence in childhood
gets undivided attention of parents
-->may become stubborn/ill-behaved as they try to regain their former position
-->may blame any discipline on the parents' love for the other child, who the first perceives is the cause of the problem.
Advantages: playing role of teacher, tutor, leader, and disciplinarian, when helping younger siblings.
Second-born Children:
Parents less concerned/anxious about their role; more relaxed
Competition with the first-born may motivate second
->if second-born feels they cannot surpass the first-born, they may become an underachiever.
Youngest-born children:
Driven to surpass all the other children and learn at a fast rate, even into adulthood.
Can be excessively pampered and come to believe they need not learn anything, but becoming helpless and dependent as adults.
Only Children:
Remain the focus/center of attention.
Spend more time with adults and may mature faster.
-Experience difficulties when they are not center of attention.
-May not have learned to compete.
-If their abilities do not bring them sufficient recognition or attention, they are likely to feel disappointment.
Therapeutic Assessment Technique: Birth Order Analysis
provides information about the unconscious lifestyle goals of the person.
Therapeutic Assessment Technique: Observation
Adler assessed the personalities by observing his patients as he believed that body language provides clues about our style of life:
How they walked or sat, the manner of shaking hands, even the choice of chair the sat in.
Therapeutic Assessment Technique: Early Recollections
indicate the style of life that characterized us as adults. Each memory was to be interpreted within the context of the patient's style of life, whether fantasy or truth.
Attitudes toward achievement, mastery, and independence
Adler's Early Recollections & Style of life Themes: First school memory
Attitude toward authority figures
Adler's Early Recollections & Style of life Themes: First Punishment memory
Evidence of sibling rivalry
Adler's Early Recollections & Style of life Themes: first sibling memory
Functioning in social situations
Adler's Early Recollections & Style of life Themes: First Family Memory
Attitudes toward women
Adler's Early Recollections & Style of life Themes: clearest memory of mother
Attitudes towards men
Adler's Early Recollections & Style of life Themes: Clearest memory of father
Basis for role modles
Adler's Early Recollections & Style of life Themes: Memory of person you admire
Basis for how your strongest needs are best gratified
Adler's Early Recollections & Style of life Themes: Happiest memory
Adler's Dream Analysis:
Used to uncover unconscious goals in accordance with one's style of life.
->dreams involve feelings about current problems and what we intend to do about the problem.