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126 Cards in this Set

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Describe Plutchick's connection between motives and emotions.
In this model, motives and emotions are listed with function and trait. For example:
Emotions can be viewed as an evolved signal system.
Who held this view and what types of things does this view involve?
Darwin held this view. He saw commonalities in emotional expressions across species.
Darwin thought that emotions convey critical messages within and across species. He believed that these were both programed and biological. He also believed in the universality of expressions
What person researched the universality of facial expression?
What did Ekman conclude as a consequence of his research?
There is support for Darwin't idea of universal facial expressions The rest of it is attributable to cultural display rules.
Ekman's research indicated that..
1. there is support for the universality of facial expressions
2. what is not attributable to universal facial expression is due to cultural display rules
What methods did Ekman use when studying cross-cultural facial expression?
-reduced a pool of 3,000 into those that a pure representation of 6 basic emotions: fear, disgust, surprise, joy, sadness
-developed facial affect coding system
-showed photos to people in literate cultures and asked them to identify the emotion that was being displayed. (In nonliterate cultures, he used the storytelling technique).
People across cultures had high agreement.
What is the difference between an emotional state and an emotional trait?
trait=long term likelihood to feel a particular way

state = momentary feeling, transitory across situations
How many mood states are there?
Ekman = 6
Nowlis=dev mood scale, did fact analysis and found 8
Russel = developed a 2 factor soln for mood - pleasant/unpeasant, activated/deactivated
Discuss Russel's 2 factor solution for mood.
1. pleasant-unpleasant
2. activated-deactivated (aroused vs. calm)
Is Russel's two factor model of mood a state model or a trait model?
Describe affect intensity.
Affect intensity asks:
How intensely does a person experience mood?
Describe a person with high affect intensity.
Person with high affect intensity experiences more pleasure and more pain. They tend to be energetic, vigorous, outgoing, and sensation seeking
(affect intensity is related to Eysneck's idea of neuroticism).
Is Eyesneck's two factor theory of personality a state model or a trait model?
What were the 2 independent factors that Eysnck discovered when performing fa on his personality inventory?
1. neuroticism vs. stability
2. intraversion vs. extraversion
**These two factors are indep of each other
Does where you fall on neuroticim/stability influence where you fall on intraversion/extraversion?
No. These two factors are independent of each other.
There are three pieces of evidence that support eyesneck's neuroticism/stability and intraversion/extraversion
1. lemon juice test for E-I
(intraverted people more easily tonically aroused, so if you give outside stim to already aroused person, they are much more reactive an will salivate more).
2. Loud commercials and E (extraverts prefer loud comercials while intraverts, who already high on arousal, don't like the extra stim).
3. mass hysteria in 1965
(fainters high on extraversion and neuroticism)
emotionally stable kids have fewer behavioral disorders than kids with higher levels of _______.
People with behavioral disorders tend to have what kind of description (according to Eysneck's model).
people with behavior disorder tend to be highly neurotic and highly extraverted
Anxious People tend to have what kind of description (according to Eysneck's model).
Anxious people tend to be high on intraversion and neuroticism
What are two of the principal causes of emotional traits?
1. Behavioral Inhibition/Activation System
2. Learning
Generally speaking, what are the Behavioral Activation and the Behavioral Inhibition systems?
These systems are the 2 brain areas that correlate to positive/negative emotions
Describe the BIS.
BIS tells us to stop, look, and listen.
It's evaluative.
It reduces behavior and increases attention.
It's associated with negative emotions.
It anticipates fear-provoking stimuli.
Describe the BAS
-encourages interaction with the environment
-causes exploration
-associated with positive emotions and anger
Why is learning considered a cause of emotional traits?
we learn emotional responses by associating emotions with previous neural events and through modeling.
Since many trad'l personality traits reflect a 2 D structure and many moods reflect this structure as well, the personality traits and the mood traits _____.
often correspond.
for example:
extroversion = arousal?
emotional stability=pleasantness
Discuss the 2002 study of the happiest students. How were the 24 happy students similar to their peers?
their grades, conscientiousness, objective physical appearance, time spent in various activities (like TV or religious observance)
Discuss the 2002 study of the happiest students. How were the 24 happy students different from their peers?
-different in terms of level of satisfaction with their lives
-they nearly never thought about suicide
-recalled many more happy events
-experienced more happy events each day
-had good quality relationships with family and friends
What are mental models?
-organized structures in memory.
-They depict the self, the world, or the self in the world.
-they help us to understand the world and they are CRUCIAL to interpersonal contacts
*a schema is an example of a mental model
what is a schema?
a type of mental model
What are the 4 types of mental models?
1. prototype = list of modal attributes (most common features)
2. script= schema that gives you a prototypical sequence of actions in an event
3. life story=narrative description of your life
4. relationship structure=styles of relating to others and the roles that we play
what are modal attributes?
most common features
Which type of mental model is associated with modal attributes?
Where do mental models come from?
1. some are biological
2. most mental models are learned through education and experience
What are implicit models of personality?
Implicit models of personality are not consciously learned. We aquire implicit knowledge while doing something else.
Most mental models are...
what is generalization?
generalization involves using an implicit model without being aware that you are doing it
What is overgeneralization?
Applying a implicit model where you shouldn't
Describe the concept of multiple realities.
we may react differently than another person to the same situation( be/c models differ across individuals)
What are two examples of our MODELS of ourselves?
What are the TYPES of selves (4)
Models of self:
1. James's view. I+me = total self
2. self schemas/self concept
Types of self:
1. actual
2. possible
3. ideal
4. ought
Describe the personality model attributed to William James.
-total self = I + me
I = watching consciousness
me= the model that we hold of ourselves
Describe the self-schemas/self concept models of ourselves.
Self schemas are the list of traits that we assign to ourselves.

Research evidence- Markas (1977) thinks that we process self-concept info faster and more efficiently
List the types of selves
1. actual
2. possible(including feared and desired selves)
3. ideal self
4. ought self
Describe the actual self.
Actual self refers to how you think that you really are.
Describe the possible self.
A Possible self is the self that you feel that you might become or might have become if things had been different.
Describe ideal self.
The self that you would like to become.
Describe ought self.
Our perception of how we should behave. Involves standards of behavior expected by others.
What happens if there is a big actual/ought discrepancy?
An actual/ought discrepancy will lead to a feeling of failing to meet expectations and anxiety.
What happens if there is a big discrepancy between the actual and the ideal?
Actual-ideal discrepancies can lead to sadness and depression.
The feared and desired selves are both types of possible selves. What is the feared self?
Feared self is the extreme negative version that you worry that you might become.
Feared and desired selves are types of possible selves. What is the desired self?
desired self is the extreme positive version of what you wish that you'd become.
There are two forms of research on the possible selves. Name them.
1. Osserman = situational influences on possible selves
They compared delinquient youth, nondelinquent youth and college students. They found that college students had more possible selves.
2. Markasus' future well being
Examined people after the death of a spouse. People who perceived themselves as adjusting well to loss predicted themselves as desired selves in the future.Poor adjusters predicted feared selves.
Describe the methods associated with Oserman's situational influence on possible selves.
They compared delinquient youth, nondelinquent youth and college students. They found that college students had more possible selves.
Describe the methods associated with the Marcus study of future well being.
Examined people after the death of a spouse. People who perceived themselves as adjusting well to loss predicted themselves as desired selves in the future.Poor adjusters predicted feared selves.
Jung thought that the self was broken into two pieces. What were they?
1. conscious self
2. shadow
Describe the shadow. What are the pieces that make up the shadow?
The shadow is not an entirely negative term. The shadow refers to material that you are unfamiliar with with and that makes you feel uncomfortable.

The two parts of the shadow:
1. anima (female energy)
2. animus (male energy)
define self esteem
self esteem is your overal pos or neg eval of the self.
Does high self esteem reduce probs?
not necessarily. There is some evidence that inflated self-esteem IS a problem.
Definition of Self efficacy.
Your judged ability to perform a certain task.
What is the difference between self esteem and self efficacy?
self esteem= your overall positive or negative eval of the self

self-efficacy=your judged ability to perform a certain task.

*self efficacy is a more specific part of self esteem
Discuss McAdams coding system.
two types:
1. redemptive (high amts of this are associated with well-being)
You describe getting back on the right path, regrouped. You learned something about yourself or saw value in your circumstances.
2. contamination (high amts this are assoc w/ depression)
A person has a negative time, which is interpreted negatively. This person encountered a difficulty and it ruined their life.
What is a formal model of the world?
-a formal model is a carefully organized description of the world and how it works.
-formal models are typically learned, developed, and taught in school.
-to demonstrate formal models, we use logical proofs and empirical info.
-formal models are valued by society ( as indic by higher income)
Implicit models of the world..
are learned gradually, though experience

are tacit knowledge = goes w/out saying
includes practical knowledge, is useful for understanding social settings, and is often unstated, as in "everyone knows...
What is a hostile attribution bias?
hostile attribution bias. In an ambiguous situation, a person with this bias interprets things in a very hostile way.
Define a script
A script is a stereotyped sequence of actions
What are personality types?
ideas that we form about others and how they operate.
Do people tend to be good at determining personality types?
Mayer and Bower (1986). Describe this study.
A prototype was created that had 16 features, and 60 variations of this was created. If 9 of the 16 overlapped with the original, than that person was in the group. If less than 7 overlapped, that persono ws not in the group.
After 60 passages, people were correct 60% of the time in id-ing members and correct 80% of the time when id-ing non members.
Conclusion? - we may remember a person as corresponding to a type that we have determined. We use schemas to fill in info.
we may remember a person as corresponding to a type that we have determined. What do we use to fill in info?
What is the collective unconscious?
material that is the same from one member of a culture to another.
Archetypes are considered a part of the collective unconscious.
Describe an archetype
-an archetype is a schema that is the universal embodiment of a cultural icon. Archetypes are part of the collective unconscious.
-specifics of the archetypes may vary slightly (what constitutes a good healer might vary from one culture to another), but these figures elicit universal emotional reactions.
Describe the significant other/relationship model.
Relationships with those we were entrusted to as children help us form schemata for how relationships work
Provide examples of the significant other/relationship model.
parents, other caretakers, teachers. We develop patterns with these individuals that we then generalize to others.
describe transference
re-emergence of a pattern of emotion originally directed at a significant other, but now re-directed onto someone else. Even minor overlaps between the so and the current relationship can trigger transference.
what is repetition compulsion?
doing the same patterns over and over.
What is a core conflictual relationship theme?
a ccrt is a key relationship theme that occurs over and over.
Identifying core conflictual relationship themes has excellent...
inter-rater reliability
What are the 3 types of adult attachment?
1. secure
2. insecure/dismissing
3. insecure/preoccupied
Describe an adult who is securely attached.
thinks that others are caring and reliable.
Describe an adult who is insecure/dismissing.
sees others as rejecting, harmful to identity
Describe an adult who is insecure/preoccupied.
has a confused sense of others; wishy-washy; love-hate;borderline PD will generally be like this
Secure couples (as indicated by secure adult attachment style)tend to be...
more proactive, happier, less verbally agressive, make fewer threats of abandonment.
describe the personna.
The persona is a mask that we put on in social situations. It is often considered the behavior associated with a social role.
Describe Hogan's socioanalytic theory
-involves constructing a series of social roles that portray the self in positive ways.
-each social interaction includes some role playing.
morals and values
-we have ideal and ought selves for our behaviors with relationships
-we have to give up some freedoms to maintain social contact with each other.
What is constructive thinking?
the degree to which a persons implicitly learned mental models facilitate solving problems in everyday life at a minimum cost in stress.
Emotional coping
is a pos indicator of constructive thinking. involves managing emotions effectively , such as avoiding worry about things you can't control
behavioral coping
a positive indicator of constructive thinking. involves acting to control things that one can, such as taking action to change situations for the better.
what is naieve optimism?
-a set of especially unrealistic beliefs that emphasize that things will turn out well and which one may hold so as to exuse oneself from taking responsibility for contributing to a given goal.
-involves maintaining positive attitudes that are, however, unrealistic and uninfluenced by experience, such as believing that everyone should always love their parents.
what are neg indicators of constructive thinking?
1. categorical thinking
2. personal superstitous thinking
3. esoteric thinking
4. naive optimism
What is a mental ability?
capacity to carry out a mental task
What is intelligence?
type of mental ability that deals with the capacity to use abstract reasoning to find a correct solution.
Is creativity a mental abillity?
What is the diff betw mental ability and intelligence?
mental ability= capacity to carry out a mental task
intelligence=type of mental ability that deals with the capacity to use abstract reasoning to find a correct solution
What did Sir Francis Galton believe about intelligence?
-his interests were in the heritability of intelligence
-he thought that intelligence was a biological capacity
-he believed that there was more intelligence in the upper class.
What did Alfred Binet believe about intelligence?
Binet believed that intelligence was a collection of higher-order mental abilities loosely related to one another. He also believed that intelligence is nurtured.
Discuss how verbal-propositional intelligence is measured on the Binet scale.
-verbal intelligence includes your memory for and understanding of words. It also includes your understanding of logic and propositions
-verbal-propositional intelligence is the first type of intelligence to be identified and measured.
-the logic portion determines how well you will do in math.
The IQ that Binet's scale measured can also be referred to as...
rate IQ
Define the concept of mental age.
Mental age is a comparison of skills to the average child at a particular age.
How do you determine rate IQ?
by comparing mental age and chronological age in the following manner:
MA/CA * 100
The IQ that Weschler's scale measured can also be referred to as...
deviation IQ
Define deviation IQ
dev IQ compares the person's standing to other people of the same age. Finds how far above or below the average you are; measures the distance in SD units.
Describe why we need deviation IQ.
After age 20, rate IQ is problematic. The mental age at diff afes means diff things.
In a normal distribution, the mean is 100 and the strd dev is 15. What % of the pop falls within one strd dev of the mean? Within 2?
1 strd dev of mean accomidates 68% of pop, 2 std devs accomidates 95%.
How were scales of perceptual/organizational intelligence originally used?
They were used to test immigrants who could not speak english
How do we define spatial intelligence?
the capacity to reason about objects in space. For example, the rotated object tasks
Distinguish between hot and cool intelligences.
Hot intelligences are more personal. They have immediate social and emotional relevance. Social intelligence (as proposed by thordike) is an example of a hot intelligence. Other hot intelligences are practical intelligence ("everybody knows" ) and emotional intelligence.

Cool intelligences are independent of emotional issues. Examples include verbal, perceptive, and spatial.
How did Thordike define social intelligence?
Social intelligence=the ability to understand people and to interact wisely in relationships. He would give tasks depicting a social sit and ask for an explanation.
Is Social intelligence is dependent upon or independent of verbal intelligence?
Social intelligence is independent of verbal intelligence.
Describe personal intelligence.
Personal intelligence is insight. It is your understanding of your ability to form your own separate self.
Define practical intelligence
Practical intelligence is one of the hot intelligences. It is defined as the capacity to identify and think about tacit knowledge, social rules/obligations, and ways to obtain goals
-involves making contacts and connections with others
-to test for presence of this, ask questions with multiple soln that have diff adv and drawbacks.
Discuss emotional intelligence and its 4 branches.
Emotional intelligence involves reasoning about emotional information.

The 4 branches:
1. accuracy at emot perception
2. understanding emotional meanings and concepts
3. self-management of emotion
4. capacity of emotion to facilitate thought (like prob solving, coping)

People with high EI tend to be more empathic and connected with others.
How do we test for the presence of practical intelligence?
-to test for presence of this, ask questions with multiple soln that have diff adv and drawbacks
How do we test EI?
Present people with emot probs and ask them to provide correct answer.
Distinguish between creativity, verbal fluency, and divergent thinking.
Creativity=ability to come up with new soln to problems

verbal fluency=capacity to generate a large no. of appropriate words to fit a specified category

divergent thinking=type of thinking demonstrated on the alternative uses task. This task asks respondents to list as any uses of an object as they can think of.
Define creativity
ability to come up with new soln for probs
Define verbal fluency
ability to generate a large number of words to fit in a specified category
discuss divergent thinking
this is the type of thinking meas by the alt uses task. Alt uses task asks respondents to list as many uses of an obj as they can think of.
Describe Spearman's g
-describes overall intellectual functioning.
-a heirarchy of sm. intelligences combine to comprise g. He thought that all mental abilities would correlate.
Does the theory of g work better for cool intelligences or for hot ones?
cool intelligencies
Describe Carrol's work regarding intelligence.
Carrol created a heirarchy of mental abilites consisting of individual tasks, specific intelligences, and then overall generalized intelligence.
Does EI belong in carrol's heirarchy?
no. EI is not important for the things that we want to predict with IQ tests
Describe intellectual absorption.
-your capacity to become absorbed in an intellectual task
-the higher the IQ,the more likely a person is to experience intellectual absorption
Emotional Intelligence is highly correlated with what quality?
Creativity is correlated with what quality?
openess to experience
when one goes up, so does the other.
People with the shizotypal style of thinking have odd, magical thinking. People with schizotypal tendencies tend to be high in what quality?
Having larger than avg mood swings are correlated with what quality?