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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the major types of external source data?
1 institutional records
2. observer report
What are some examples of institutional records?
grades, marriage certificates, newspaper articles
What are some examples of observer report?
what other observers say about us, ex is therapist report
What are the four types of observer report?
self judgement, convergent report, thematic report, process report
Describe a self judgement.
aka self report. Involves agreeing or disagreeing with a statement about oneself.
Describe a convergent report.
A convergent report involves constructing a response that meets a criterion. Convergent reports are also called criterion reports.
examples are mental ability tests like IQ tests and achievement tests.
Describe a thematic report.
thematic reports are projective tests. They involove creating responses that reflect themes or ideas.
process report
pertains to something going on in your mind at the moment, involves telling what you're thinking while you are solving a problem or are having an emotional experience
What types of things make observer data accurate? inaccurate?
Observer data can be accurate if it is a trait seen by everyone around you, like intelligence.
If the observer is under pressure, they are not as accurate.
types of research design (4)
case studies, observational method, correlational method, experimental methods
What are the three functions of a case study?
1. exemplification= it is an illustrative example of what you are studying
2. evaluation
What are the three disadvantages of case studies?
1. There is no RANDOM SELECTION, so the results are not GENERALIZABLE
2. No control
3. Subject to a lg amt of observer bias (where the observer looks for things that confirm their hypotheses).
Describe the observational method.
From multiple, repeated observations of many cases, you try to draw conclusions about the general population.
What were Freud's thoughts on the observational method and what were the shortcomings associated with his opinion?
Freud thought that you should make observations in a consistent enviro, he also believed that different people observing the same thing would agree. He also thought that the pt would agree with the assesment.

The disadvantage of his view is that observers agree only if they have the same theoretical orientation.
Things that are important for the quiz
correlational method
What does the correlational method allow us to do?
predict action of one variable from the value of the other.
It does NOT allow us to infer causation
What type of correlation-related technique is used for
a) two variables
b) more than two variables?
a) correlation coeficient
b) multiple linear regression
How would you describe a negative corelation?
As one variable goes up, another goes down.
What is a regression line?
line of best fit. Used when determining corelations
What two elements are we concerned about when considering correlation?
1. direction = upward slanting is pos
2. strength = dots that are close together indicate a strong correlation
How is a correlation of zero indicated on a graph and what does it mean?
a correlation of zero is indicated by a flat, horizontal line. It means that there is no relationship between the two variables.
The variable manipulated by the experimenter is the...
independent variable
The outcome variable, or the variable that you are measuring is called the...
dependent variable
What is the experimental group?
the group that gets the treatment
We have 50 people. We make 25 of them smoke ultra and 25 of them smoke light. Under this set of circumstances, what is the IV?
the type of cigarette smoked
(not the people who did the smoking. IV and DV are not people, they are variables)
We have 50 people. We make 25 of them smoke ultra and 25 of them smoke light. What is the experimental group?
The people who smoke are the experimental group. The experiemntal group recieves the manipulation.
What type of method allows us to infer causation?
What's another name for a quasi experient?
natural experiment
What are the problems with quasi experimental designs?
1. There isn't any randomization
2. You can't attribute the effects to an IV, so you can't draw a causal inference.
What are two features of true experimental designs?
1. They involve random assignment
2. they attempt to consider ecological validity
What is ecological validity?
clinical significance. Would this be meaningful outside of the lab?
What is the one of the primary questions associated with the psychometrics approach?
how good is a particular test at measuring the construct of interest.
define a test
a test is a systematic procedure through which a person responds to a set of constructed stimuli
classical test theory
tries to figure out how to create tests
X= T + E
What does the above equation represent?
obtained score = true score + error
How do you find the obtained score?
add together the true score and the error
What are some synonyms for reliability?
stability, predictability, dependability, consistency
What question does reliability attempt to answer?
how well are you measuring what you say you are measuring
What is one way by which relaibility can be defined?
relability can be thought of as the correlation between the true score and the obtained score
Which element of the formula for obtained score (X=T+e) is zero when a mental test is perfectly reliable?

where e is error
What formula represents the circumstances under which a mental test is perfectly reliable?
obtained score = true score
What are the types of reliability? (3)
parallel forms reliability, internal consistency(aka split half reliability), test-retest reliability
what is the diff between parallel forms reliability, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability?
Parallel forms reliability attempts to correlate 2 FORMS of the same test

Internal consistency reliability attempts to divide ONE TEST into two parllel halves.

Test retest reliability attempts to correlate scores from the SAME TEST AT TWO DIFFERENT TIME POINTS
What is the question that validity attempts to answer?
Is your test measuring what it is supposed to measure?
What are the different types of validity? (5)
face, content, criterion, structural, construct
What is face validity?
Face validity occurs when a test looks like it measures what it claims to measure. For example an item asking "Are you sad?" would have high face validity.
What construct attempts to answer the following question:
Are the test items accurately sampling from
a given contents domain?
content validity
What construct attempts to answer the following question:
Is the test measuring the specific content that it is supposed to?
content validity
Define criterion validity.
criterion validity correlates with a standard of performance that you wish to predict.
There are two types of criterion validity. What are they?
1. concurrent criterion validity
2. predictive criterion validity

Remember-criterion validity correlates with a standard of performance that you wish to predict.
What are the differences between the two forms of criterion validity?
Concurrent criterion validity correlates with a criterion occuring at roughly the same time as testing.

Predictive criterion validity criterion validity correlates with a future criterion.
Define structural validity
If a test has structural validity, it measures the number of independent variables that it claims to measure
Define construct validity
Construct validity asks: Does the test behave the way that you would expect, given what you say that you are measuring?
Construct vality should not be confused with content validity (which asks if the test items are accurately sampling from a given domain and if the test is measuring the specific content that it is supposed to.
What are the two types of multivariate statistical techniques?
1. factor analysis
2. structural equation modeling
What do multivariate statistics allow us to do?
handle multiple variables
What is the logic that underlies factor analysis?
If multiple variables correlate highly, they are the same thing, if they don't, then they are not the same thing
If 2 items are always answered the same way, then they are measuring the same thing. What principle is this example illustrating?
factor analysis
What are the steps in the process by which factor analysis is conducted?
1. give test to a large group of people
2. create a correlation matrix
3. do complicated math to find clusters
4. get a factor loading table that tells you the number of likely factors and how related items are with each factor
In factor analysis, what does a factor look like?
A factor is represented by a column of factor loadings under a roman numeral.
Doubted 0.71 -.05
Changed 0.59 .13
Accepted 0.15 0.57
Discussed -.08 0.56
In factor analysis, what does a factor loading look like?
The factor loading is the correlation between a test item and a factor. (I think that it is represented by a number)
Doubted 0.71 -.05
Changed 0.59 .13
Accepted 0.15 0.57
Discussed -.08 0.56
In the folowing example, which two items load high for factor 1 and which two items load high for factor 2?

Doubted 0.71 -.05
Changed 0.59 .13
Accepted 0.15 0.57
Discussed -.08 0.5
high factor 1 = doubted and changed

high factor 2 = accepted and discussed
What is structural equation modeling?
Structural equation modeling is related to factor analysis. It represents analyses as a figure with lines between variables and factors.
What is the difference between a framework and a perspective?
What is the diff between a theory and a microtheory?
Framework = outline of the fields most important topics

Perspective = set of assumptions about the most important influences on personality

theory = statements about how personality operates

microtheories = adress specific, narrow probs
What are the two major theories associated with the biological perspective?
and biopsychological
Describe the intra-psychic perspective.
The intra-psychic perspective emphasizes parts and the organization of the mental system

The intra psychic perspective focuses strongly on MENTAL MECHANISMS to explain individuals

Components of the intrapsychic perspective are trait psych and the psychodynamic perspective
What are the components of the topographic model (3)?
the preconscious, the conscious, the unconscious
Describe the preconscious component of the topographic model.
The preconscious is relatively benign, you can get to it if you need it. example. You might not be thinking of your mom's name, but if I were to ask you for that piece of info, you'd be able to retrieve it.
Describe the conscious component of the topographic model.
Info that is acessible to you all of the time.
Describe the unconscious component of the topographic model.
Seething cauldron of impulses, urges, fantasies, and their associated memories
Describe the id
pub i

Pleasure principle
Unconscious only
(present since) Birth
Istinctual drives
Describe the ego

Conscious (mostly)
(develops in) Infancy
Reality principle
Describe the superego

U+P, unconscious & preconscious

Moral standards
Develops upon resolution of the electra/oedipal crisis
Who are three people who espoused views associated with the sociocultural perspective?
Julian Rotter
Walter Mischel
George Kelly
Describe the sociocultural perspective
an individual's personality constantly adjusts to situations.
Julian Rotter believed...
Julian Rotter, who is associated with the sociocultural perspective, believed that an individual's behavior is a function of your goals.
Rotter also believed in the "locus of control"
Walter Mischel ...
emphasized social influences on moment to moment behavior
George Kelly...
said that an individual behaves flexibly to understand and to react to the outside world.
social cognitive approach emphasizes the study of which kind of traits....
conditional traits
for example,
given x, I am agressive
given y, I am cooperative
What types of views does the cross cultural perspective espouse?
The cross cultural perspective emphasizes that we are products of both our learning and our culture.
The microtheory associated with this is the collectivist vs. individualist culture distinction
What types of views does the temporal developmental perspective espouse?
the temporal-developmental perspective emphasizes personality over the lifespan.
Erikson's work falls in this category, as does humanistic and pos pych
What is the difference between motivation and instinct?
motivation=figuring out why people do what they do.

instinct = an innate, preprogramed, biological urge satisfied by a simple action
It was once thought that motives arise from instinct - that is, motives are biologically based or learned needs to behave in a particular way. What negates this early view?
cultural differences in behavior
What are projective tests?
Projective tests examine THEMES in responses to understand a person.
There are no direct questions - you just mmeasure what a person projects onto stimuli.
What are some examples of projective tests?
TAT, Rorschach, Draw a peson
What were the 3 broad groups of needs that Murray believed that the TAT measured
need for achievement, need for power, and need for affiliation
Murray classified 4 different types of needs. What were they?
psychogenic vs. viscerogenic

adient vs. abient
What are psychogenic needs?
viscerogenic needs?
psychogenic needs = caused by the psyche
viscerogenic needs = caused by biology
What are adient needs?
Abient needs?
Adient = a need that drives you toward other people/objects

Abient = a need that drives you away from other people/objects
According to Murray, Affiliation is what kind of need?
adient psychogenic
According to Murray, recognition is what kind of need?
adient psychogenic
According to Murray, autonomy is what kind of need?
abient psychogenic
According to Murray, power is what kind of need
abient psychogenic
Water is what kind of need?
adient viscerogenic
Urination is what kind of need?
abient viscerogenic
Are self-report measures direct or projective?
Self seport measures are direct measures.
What are the disadvantages of self report measures?
1. People not know why they do things (Wilson and Nisbett's experiment with the pantyhose)
2. social desireability = you answer how you think society wants you to answer
What is forced choice responsibility?
Forced choice responsibility requires that you choose between two alternatives that have been weighted such that they are roughly equivalent in terms of social desireability
What is an example of a forced choice responding?
Edwards personal preference inventory asked people if thye would prefer to watch a violent movie or porn
What are personal strivings?
the class of things that a person does to attain goals
Do people have any difficulty reporting personal strivings?
No. People are good at recognizing their personal strivings
What types of goals lead to positive self-feelings?
realistic, unconflicting goals that require some effort lead to positive self feelings
unrealistic goals lead to...
negative self feelings
What are the central tennets of the individual differences approach to studying personality?
According to the individual differences viewpoint, personality is the study of individual differences between people. This approach does NOT allow for the study of people who are the same
What are the two diff approaches to studying personality?
the individual differences approach and Wundt's system approach
What did Wundt believe about the study of personality?
1. Wundt thought that personality is a system that organizes other psych systems

2. He thought that smaller systems combine to form larger ones in a HIEARCHY
what is a system?
any set of interrelated parts
definition of personality
personality is the organized, developing system within the individual that represents the collective action of that individual's major psychological processes
Describe the time dimension assoicated with the study of personality
personality develops and matures over time
Is the personality system internal or external?
the personality system is internal
How is the internal personality system connected to the external?
the sensory motor boundary
connects the internal to the external.

Info from the outside world will be interpreted by the brain, and this interpretation will guide response.
Describe the questions posed by McAdam's levels of knowing.
What is personality?
What are a person's traits?
What are a person's current concerns?
What is a person's life story?