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34 Cards in this Set

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What are the two main assumptions in the cognitive perspective of psychology
1. It is critical to understand how people deal with the information that surruonds them
2. Life is lived through an elaborate web of decisions.
Within the cognitive perspective, what is the term used by people to organize, store and retrieve memories of their experiences
The use of schemas are used.
Schemas are mental organizations of information.
What are exemplars?
The specific pieces of information used to characterize information.
What are prototypes
the ideal or best example of a schema or category.
Fuzzy Set
The use of criteria that describe a category but is not necessary
Describe a schema based bias
The association of a specific schema activates the persons tendency to search for and identify schema related items.
Define a the occurrence of default information in the cognitive perspective.
Defaults are assumptions in memory and information that occur based on a schema.
Define episodic memory
Episodic Memeory are memeories associated with time and space. Items such as place etc.
Define a script
Scripts are the collection of schema specific episodes that then lead the individual to assume and understand what set of actions will occur
What are scripts used for?
Scripts help to increase and facilitate the interpretation of common event. A sort of event specific prototype.
What is the knowledge that pertains to peoples knowledge of structures of action. In other words, what part of memory help to organize and implement physical actions.
Procedural Knowledge.
What are some general types of schemas?
Socially relevant schemas
Self-Schemas
Explain self-complexity
This occurs when individual tend to think of themselves and identity as occurring according to contexts.
The diversity of schemas associated with the self. Example : mother schema, sportsman schema etc.
Schemas are dissociative of each other.
What are the views associated with seeing ones ability as "entity". What are the scheme specific cues?
Ability as entity is seen as a solid aspect of perspective. Thus leading to the need to prove ones own ability.

Cues of consistency tend to be noticed.
What are the views associated with seeing ones ability as "Increment". What are the scheme specific cues?
Ability as incemental is seen in a more organic view, where each "chance" to perform is a chance for growth.

Cues tend to be more specific to change.
What is the term used when an individual infers the cause of an event?
Attribution
What are four attributes associated with success and failure?

And how did Weiner divide these four attributes on a dimensional level?
Ability
Effort,
Task difficulty,
Chance factors.

Weiner's theory "locus of causality"
Cause is seen as internal or external
As (ability and effort) or (Chance factors, difficulty, powerful others).
Node theory of cognitive processing
Where loci are created, little bubbles interconnecting with others, creating a web of information all linked to one another. Each bubble is called a node.
What is partial activation?
When the activation of one node activates all associations with that information partially. allowing for the memory of relevant information to be more easily accessed.
Why is it that priming effects are mostly semantic?
The reason being is that inter associated cues and nodes are partially activated. This therefore allows for the entire range of information to be accessed.
In what areas do priming effect?
Perceptual categories
Actions
Procedural knowledge
Behaviour
What are two other names for the connectionist model of cognition
Parallel distributed processing
Neural networks
What is the connectionist model of activation?
The theory states taht neurons have a network of connections, and at any one time, a particular activation pattern emerges. Cognition is the process of patterns switching and changing. Typically, the one that is dominant activates more often.
How does the connectionist model apply to personality.
The model states that in using multiple patterns, eventually constraints are placed, in that two relevant activations are unnecessary, thus only one is needed eventually. Likewise, in decision make, an eventual output is generated from the summation of the total network.
In Mischel's social-learning person variables theory, he believed five components were necessary for a proper theory of personality, what are they?
Competencies: (one abilities)
Encoding strategies and personal constructs ( how one see the world and defines it)
Expectancies (what one expects to occur from events or behaviors)
Subjective values: (personal specific values that lead individual into action)
Self Regulatory systems and plans (goals and plans that are realized through action)
What are the two main aspects of defining personality in the cognitive affective model of personality
The individual is defined in two aspects. The first that of how the person contrues reality, in other words what are the dominant schemas associated
Second, what are the expectancy schemas that the individual is likely to think of....the If... then possibilities.
What is a Behavioural Signature
The unique profile of their if...then schemas.
What are cognitive assessment techniques
Techniques used to determine the mental structures and patterns of cognition associated with an individual.
What are cognitive hedges?
Categories and conditions associated to generalize a persons personality. Such as a person is seen as aggressive typically in certain situations.
What is the think aloud model and how do scientists assess this?
The use of recording thoughts, behaviors and emotions during events or situations.
These are then correlated together and investigated to see if this is a general aspect of that persons personality
What is event recording
Another form of the think aloud model, except the behaviors thoughts and emotions are recorded during or after an event.
How can context help to assess individuals
Context often helps to divide personality characteristics from a more general category into more specific instances and categories.
What are automatic thoughts?
A problem (or solution) to cognitive processes, in which distortions in perceiving reality affect the individual thereby reinforcing negative actions and emotions more. Generally, reality is ignored and the cognitive model pervades
Becks cognitive triad
Using negative schema to decipher the self, the world and the future.