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65 Cards in this Set

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Michel and Shoda's model is known as the Cognitive-Affective Model (CAPS). What are the components of CAPS?
1. Encodings = these are the categories into which we sort people, situations, and events
2. expectancies = outcomes that we think are possible in a situation
3. affects = emotions and related feelings to people, situations and outcomes
4. goals =desireable results that we hope for
5. self-regulatory plans = what we hope to do, based on our sense of competing beliefs
on quiz 4 michelle's beliefs about how she would do on solo is expectancy. (other choice was encoding)
need = state of tension that can be satisfied with a specific goal
For instance, hunger can be satisfied with eating.
presses = environmental incentives and disincentives for acting
urge = conscious psychological awareness of a need.Urges may be biological(eat, drink, sleep) or biosocial (affiliation, achievement).
*Describe conflictual strivings
Conflictual strivings involve a clear and direct conflict between two strivings.
Describe Ambivalent strivings
With ambivalent strivings, the goal has an intrinsic conflict
What are the different types of personality dynamics?
1. microdynamics = causal connections between small, specific parts of personality
*2. mid-level or meso dynamics = include causal attributions (your ideas about what causes events)
*3. macro-level dynamics = dynamics that influence the whole personality structure
What are the two approaches to acting?
1. Method acting = get into the head of the character that you are playing. (Stanislovski developed method acting)

*2. Theatricalism = learning how you would move on a stage, pretend to be sad, etc. Involves how you project feeling so everyone can see them (larger than life).
What are the 3 types of symbolic interactions?
*1. disclamers = verbal devices to decrease negative implications of something that we are saying or doing.
2. accounts = include excuses and justification
*3. altercasting = presenting another person in a somewhat different manner than they are accustomed to.
Describe accounts, which are a type of symbolic interaction.
There are two types of accounts:
1. excuses = deny responsibility, but acknowledge that it shouldn't have happened.
*2.justification = accept responsibility, but deny any problem.
What are the 3 types of constructs (assoc w/ Kelley's CPC model)?
*1. dilated constructs = too broadly applying a model to different areas of your life
2. tight constructs = you make unvarying predictions about what will happen; means that you don't try new things.
*3.loose constructs = rough drafts. Maybe it will be diff this time.
Describe the four general areas of personality function (also known as the system set).
Describe CAPS
Note that this is not the same thing as CAPS (structures of social interaction).
1.executive consciousness = self awareness and self control lattice = motives and emotion
3. knowledge works = mental models and intelligence
4. role player = social roles and how to carry them out.
(ee sag)
1. Encodings = these are the categories into which we sort people, situations, and events
2. expectancies = outcomes that we think are possible in a situation
3. affects = emotions and related feelings to people, situations and outcomes
4. goals =desireable results that we hope for
5. self-regulatory plans = what we hope to do, based on our sense of competing beliefs
Describe the difference between latent and manifest content
latent = an underlying meaning that people can understand; also what the people might unknowingly intend
manifest content = what the person says the meaning is; manifest content is direct meaning.
Describe Greenwald's theory of the Totalitarian ego.
*1. egocentrism = your world revolves around your sense of you
2. benefectance = we take credit for good things and avoid responsibility for bad things
*3. confirmation bias = we attempt to confirm or affirm our already held beliefs.
Characteristics of hypnotic trance
1. supression of planning occurs
2. redistribution of attention (whereby you screen out some stuff but attend to the rest)
3. enhanced availibility of unusual and emotional memories(recall past in a more intense manner)
4. reduction in reality testing (hypnotized people are more apt to imagine and accept alternative realities)
5. increased suggestibility(both while in the trance and for post-hypnosic suggestions)
6. role behavior (it is easier to act out unacustomed or forgotten roles)
7. spontaneous amnesia - hypnotized people report forgetting some or all of the session;they do not remember post-hypnotic suggestions)
The terms associated with Murray's model of need strength are regnant process, prepotent needs, need fusion, subsidiary needs, determinate needs, and functionally autonomous needs. Describe.
determinate needs determine all of the other needs.

regnant processes tell us which process is controlling personality at a given moment (tells us whether we study or sleep); the idea of regnant processes brings up the concept that needs conflict.

Prepotent needs are needs that are more important than other needs (for instance, hunger trumps academic activities).

need fusiion involves satisfying 2 needs with one action. For example, getting paid to sing a solo satisfies the need for attention and the need to make money.

Subsidiary needs indicate that some needs may serve other ones. In other words, little needs can be satisfied to get to bigger ones.

functionally autonomous needs start as subsidiary needs but then become important to you on their own. In other words, you start to do something for a different reason than you did originally.
What is a negative feedback loop?
A negative feedback loop is a cycle of acting, getting feedback, and acting again in order to reduce the discrepancy between what you want (goal) and what you are.
The brain can be divided into three sets of neurological structures. What are these?
1. reptilian brain = responsible for instincts
2. paleomamalian brain = integration of thought and feeling as well as motivation, emotion, and memory
3. Neomamalian brain = most sophisticated area, responsibe for higher cognitive functions
Language can be modified and amplified through specific body movements. What are the three types of body movements?
Emblems are fairly precise gestures with specific cultural meaning. (ie, thumbs up)

*illustrator: movement of hand/body to supplement speech (but can't replace speech). You take the meaning of the illustrator from the context example is "fish was this big"

*Locomotion is the movement of the body or parts of the body to express reactions. For example, move away from someone coughing.
Discuss sentinence
sentinence is an aspect of consciousness that is your internal subjective experience; what it feels like to be use. Your stream of consciousness provides you with your own personal eyes on yourself and the world.
*subjective realism
All mental events are caused by some set of physical events.
We are hooked up to our own neurons, so we experience those events differently.
Describe the dynamic unconscious.
The dynamic unconscious consists of :
1.consciousness = internal "eye or sense organ on the brain
2. preconscious = may not be thinking about now, but you can get to it if necessary
~declarative memory fits into preconscious
3. unconscious = matters that one doesn't know about
Describe features of a structural theory of personality
1. comprehensiveness-divisions should cover everything or nearly so.

2. scientific foundation - should be empirically supported

3. distinctiveness-each division should explain something different from everything else.

4. Structure needs to have an appropriate number of divisions -
< 3 is too simple
>7 involves too much overlap
Describe the concept of agencies.
-Self-agencies are sub personalities that tie together various functions of the personality.

-Each sub personality is thought to function semi-autonomously.

-agencies will organize and periodically govern our actions.

-the conscious self is a special class of agency.

-dissociative disorders support the idea that we have diff agencies
A study showed that people pick pantyhose on right most often. What does this reflect.
This is reflective of one of the disadv of self report measures:
1. People not know why they do things (Wilson and Nisbett's experiment with the pantyhose)
When you see an orange balloon you are able to reflect that you are aware of being aware of the color
Executive consciousness is implicated in self-awareness and self-control (this is part of system set "reek")
Discuss flow.
Flow is the STRUCTURING ELEMENT to consciousness. Flow includes things like concentration on a task. During a time when you are experiencing flow, you will lose self consciousness and acquire a sense of timelessness.

Flow is easier to achieve if you have clear goals or feedback for a task.

When you experience flow, you experience a sense of organization and coordination.
dialogical self
Hermans developed the idea of the dialogical self. The dialogical self shifts around the person, breathing action into other entities. The dialogical self is a more flexible version of the self as knower.
*crystal vs
fluid intelligence
*crystal = well learned material acquired through previous experience

fluid = active, immediately occuring processes that we use on new probs.
~the two work together~
concrete = observe, record label
*abstract = look at relationships and draw conclusions.
lexical hypothesis
The lexical hypothesis states that all important traits can be found in the language.
-is data driven
Describe the superego as it relates to Freud's alternative to the conscious self.
The superego has 2 parts
1. ego ideal - what the ego aspires to be
2. conscience - societal rules that govern the ego

In Freud's model, each of the entities could variously take control.
What are the contents of consciousness?
*1. qualia - sounds, sights, thoughts, and urges that pass through our conscious awareness

*2. most common contents of consciousness are our current concerns.

*3. dadreams-thoughts of ours that fill in the gaps. They usually have clear beginings and endings, are composed of everyday behaviors, and lack a disciplined focus.

4. Rumination - repetitive thoughts associated with goals that are blocked or difficult to reach.
Rumination is usually not pleasant. Ruminations are accompanied by a lot of sadness and fear and are often associated with depression. We also ruminate a lot when we fall in love.
3 types of decisions according to James
1. Decisions requiring little will
2. Decisions in which outside pressures are present and we don't really care
3. decisions in which the will is strongly experienced
-alternatives are kept firmly in mind as we consider the possible outcomes of our decisions
-we may have difficulty making a decision because we recognize the cost.
Describe no acess unconscious.
he no acess unconscious is the unconscious proper.

Activities in the no-acess unconscious are mental activities to which consciousness is simply not connected

Example: Neurons departing from the retina. We have no idea how our visual system works - its function is unconscious.

visual illusions work be/c of the no acess unconscious
*Describe the automatic (implicit) unconscious.
*The automatic unconscious might also be considered the implicit unconscious.

Cognitive processes operate independently of consciousness but (consciousness?) directs our thoughts, behaviors and judgment.

The automatic unconscious is filtering through your ideas and you are not aware of it.

false fame effect and perceptual priming are associated with the automatic unconscious
*Describe the unnoticed unconscious.
What line of research deals with the unnoticed unconscious?
Describe the unnoticed unconscious. We could know it or have acess to it but we don't notice.
What line of research deals with the unnoticed unconscious? Bowers (1984) and the landscape preferences
List the types of structural models of awareness (4)
1. no acess unconscious = visual illusions

2. automatic unconscious = implicit uncoscious. Filters thru our idease but we have no awareness of it. includes perceptual/conceptual priming and false fame effect

3. unnoticed unconscious - bowers landscape picking experiment; operant conditioning is part of this.

4. dynamic unconscious
conscious, preconscious, unconscious
Early psychologist who saw personality as a system that organizes other psychological systems.
Jung thought that the self was broken into two pieces. What were they?
1. conscious self
2. shadow
Describe the shadow. What are the pieces that make up the shadow?
The shadow is not an entirely negative term. The shadow refers to material that you are unfamiliar with with and that makes you feel uncomfortable.

The two parts of the shadow:
1. anima (female energy)
2. animus (male energy)
What is the collective unconscious?
material that is the same from one member of a culture to another.
Archetypes are considered a part of the collective unconscious.
-an archetype is a schema that is the universal embodiment of a cultural icon. Archetypes are part of the collective unconscious.
-specifics of the archetypes may vary slightly (what constitutes a good healer might vary from one culture to another), but these figures elicit universal emotional reactions.
Framework vs *perspective
framework = outline of the field's most important topics

*perspective = Perspective = set of assumptions about the most important influences on personality
theory vs. microtheory
theory = statements about how personality operates

microtheories = adress specific, narrow probs
**Describe a convergent report
A convergent report involves constructing a response that meets a criterion. Convergent reports are also called criterion reports.
examples are mental ability tests like IQ tests and achievement tests.
larger, more global combinations of pieces
process report
pertains to something going on in your mind at the moment, involves telling what you're thinking while you are solving a problem or are having an emotional experience
*Describe a thematic report.
*thematic reports are projective tests. They involove creating responses that reflect themes or ideas.
What types of things make observer data accurate? inaccurate?
Observer data can be accurate if it is a trait seen by everyone around you, like intelligence.
If the observer is under pressure, they are not as accurate.
inclusive fitness
Inclusive fitness therefore takes into account both the passing of genes from an organism to its offspring and the inheritance of the same genes among relatives and their offspring.

The most obvious examples of increased inclusive fitness can be observed in the altruistic behaviors of parents. To ensure that their genes remain in the gene pool, organisms attempt to give rise to the maximum number of offspring that are sure to survive.
perfect reliability
*what is the diff between parallel forms reliability, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability?
Parallel forms reliability attempts to correlate 2 FORMS of the same test

Internal consistency reliability attempts to divide ONE TEST into two parllel halves.

Test retest reliability attempts to correlate scores from the SAME TEST AT TWO DIFFERENT TIME POINTS
*Define structural validity
If a test has structural validity, it measures the number of independent variables that it claims to measure
Distinguish between content and construct validity
Construct validity asks: Does the test behave the way that you would expect, given what you say that you are measuring?
Construct vality should not be confused with content validity (which asks if the test items are accurately sampling from a given domain and if the test is measuring the specific content that it is supposed to.
Describe the intra-psychic perspective
The intra psychic perspective focuses strongly on MENTAL MECHANISMS to explain individuals

Components of the intrapsychic perspective are trait psych and the psychodynamic perspective
Describe the sociocultural perspective
an individual's personality constantly adjusts to situations.

Julian Rotter, who is associated with the sociocultural perspective, believed that an individual's behavior is a function of your goals.
Rotter also believed in the "locus of control"
emphasized social influences on moment to moment behavior
said that an individual behaves flexibly to understand and to react to the outside world.
social cognitive approach emphasizes the study of which kind of traits....
conditional traits
for example,
given x, I am agressive
given y, I am cooperative
What are the 4 types of mental models?
1. prototype = list of modal attributes (most common features)
2. script= schema that gives you a prototypical sequence of actions in an event
3. life story=narrative description of your life
4. relationship structure=styles of relating to others and the roles that we play
Define deviation IQ. Compare this with *Rate IQ.
dev IQ compares the person's standing to other people of the same age. Finds how far above or below the average you are; measures the distance in SD units. (Weschler's is dev)

Get rate IQ by comparing mental age and chronological age in the following manner:
MA/CA * 100
What is a formal model of the world? vs.
Implicit models of the world..
-a formal model is a carefully organized description of the world and how it works.
-formal models are typically learned, developed, and taught in school.
-to demonstrate formal models, we use logical proofs and empirical info.
-formal models are valued by society ( as indic by higher income)

-implicit=are learned gradually, though experience

are tacit knowledge = goes w/out saying
includes practical knowledge, is useful for understanding social settings, and is often unstated, as in "everyone knows...
4 branches of reasoning about emot info..
1. acurate perceive
2.manage emot
3. using emot to facilitate thinking
4. understand emot
cultural display rules
what is not attributable to universal facial expression is due to cultural display rules
BIS tells us to stop, look, and listen.
It's evaluative.
It reduces behavior and increases attention.
It's associated with negative emotions.
It anticipates fear-provoking stimuli.

-encourages interaction with the environment
-causes exploration
-associated with positive emotions and anger
What were the 2 independent factors that Eysnck discovered when performing fa on his personality inventory?
1. neuroticism vs. stability
2. intraversion vs. extraversion
**These two factors are indep of each other
Distinguish between creativity, verbal fluency, and divergent thinking
Distinguish between creativity, verbal fluency, and divergent thinking. Creativity=ability to come up with new soln to problems

verbal fluency=capacity to generate a large no. of appropriate words to fit a specified category

divergent thinking=type of thinking demonstrated on the alternative uses task. This task asks respondents to list as any uses of an object as they can think of.