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93 Cards in this Set

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What are the two ways by which we deal with the pain of falling short?
1. defense mechanisms
2. supression
Discuss defense mechanisms
-we use defense mechanisms to protect the conscious executive from mental pain (like humiliation, shame, and fear).
-defense mechan are a Freudian construct. He conceptualized them as largely unconscious processes.
-Ana Freud systemitized defense mechan.
Describe the key difference between repression and supression.
Things that have been repressed are not under our control, while supressed items are in our consciousness.
Discuss supression
-supression is diff than defense mechan
-supression involves consciously not thinking about something. It involves the avoidance of unpleasant materials. (In uncontrollable situation, supression can be healthy)
Discuss studies of supression and what they identified.
In his studies on supression, Wegner tells you not to think of something. We find that people are able to supress ideas, but that the ability to supress ideas varies among individuals. In addition, the supressors later thought more about the stimulus than the control group.
Discuss how the case of Mary is related to micro facial expressions.
She lied to her doctors, saying that she was fine, when in fact she wanted to comit suicide. wideotapes revealed microexpressions of sadness.
Discuss how microfacial expressions are related to nursing students discussing roomates
Students said that they liked roomates, didn't get angry at roomates, etc. Videotapes revealed micro expressions of neutrality, anger, disgust, anger, and neutrality.
How would Ekman define microexpressions?
A microexpression is a complete, full faced emotional expression but in a highly compressed ammount of time.
-Microexpressions help in the detection of deception.
Is Repression an example of a defense mechanism?
no, but all of the other defense mechanisms work this way.
Define repression
Repression involves forcing material that is threatening or unpleasant out of consciousness.
-repression involves motivated non-perception, ie unconscious
-repression might begin as supression
Describe one way in which repression might begin.
Repression may begin as supression
e.g. forgetting that you have a test in a class that you are failing.
Specific defense mechanisms
-were developed by Anna Freud. Anna put them on a developmental heiarchy from least mature to most mature.
-each defense mechan is a dynamic of self control with the goal of avoiding pain.
Rank the defense mechanisms that we discussed in class from least mature to most mature.
denial (least mature)
reaction formation
sublimation (most mature)
Discuss denial.
-denial is the statement that something that is true is false (or that something that is false is true).
-denial is the least mature of all of the defenses.
-among children, te use of denial is common and normal.
-adults use denial, but only in times of extreme stress (ie Kubler-Ross's stages of dying)
-denial is often seen in substance abusers, sex offenders, and people with eating disorders.
Discuss projection.
-Projection involves denying a characteristic in yourself, while attibuting it to another person. (eg I'm not angry, you're angry).
-Projection is related to the false consensus effect, in which we tend to see others as more like us than they are.
-there is more of a false consensus effect in those with high self esteem
Discuss rationalization
-plausible reason for doing something which does not reflect the real reason.
I don't drink every day, so I don't have prob (minimizing)
I don't drink half of what Sam does (justifying)
If you had the problems I had, you'd be drinking too (analyzing)
It will get better later (postponing).
List the defense mechan that we discussed in class.
rxn formation
What is the diff betw projection and rxn formation
projection = denying a characteristic in yourself, while attributing it to another
rxn formation = acting opposite to the real and true urges that you have
Define rxn formation and provide some examples.
Rxn formation involves acting opposite to the real and true urges that you have.
For example, Ted haggard preached about the sin of homosexuality but he had relations with a man.
another ex. Having agressive impulses but becoming a pacifist.
Describe sublimation
Sublimation is the most mature of the defense mechanisms. It involves finding a constructive social role as an outlet for an urge.
For example, someone who is agressive might become a butcher or a surgeon.
Define personality development
how the parts of personality and their organization change across the lifespan.
Describe resilience
ability to be healthy and thrive under less than ideal circumstances.
What are stage theories? Who are 2 examples of stage theorists?
Stage theories suggest that we develop in relatively fixed phases. We can divide the lifespan among these phases.Piaget was a stage theorist, as was Erikson.
Provide a general description of Erikson's 8 stage psychosocial theory.
-Erikson's theory suggests that a persona developes along paths expected by society.
-each developmental period comes with a problem to resolve
-sucessful vs. unsucessful resolution has long-lasting implications.
Describe stage 1 of Erikson's psychosocial theory
(birth to 1 yr)
-During this stage, infants must rely on others for care. Consistent, dependable caregiving leads to a sense of trust
-infants who are not well cared for develop mistrust
Describe stage 2 of Erikson's psychosocial theory
(1-3 yrs)
-Kids in stage 2 are discovering their own independence
-if kids are given the opportunity to experience independence, then they gain a sense of autonomy.
-if kids are overly restrained or punished harshly, shame and doubt develop.
Describe stage 3 of Erikson's psychosocial theory
Stage 3 = initiative vs. Guilt
(3-5 yrs)
-in stage 3, kids are exposed to the wider social world and are given greater responsibility.
-A sense of accomplishment leads to initiative, while guilt emerges if kids are made to feel too anxious or irresponsible.
Describe stage 4 of Erikson's psychosocial theory
(5-12 yrs; elementary school)
-it is hoped that a mastery of knowledge and intellectual skills emerge during this phase.
-a sense of competence and achievement leads to industry.
-feeling incompetent and unproductive leads to inferiority.
Describe stage 5 of Erikson's psychosocial theory
Stage 5 = adolescent identity vs. confusion (13-18 adolescence)
-this stage involves developing a sense of who one is and were you are going in life.
-Sucessful resolution leads to + identity
-unsucessful resolution leads to identity confusion or negative identity.
list the first five erikson's 8 stages. These are the stages that are associated with personality development in childhood and adolescence.
1. trust vs. mistrust
2. autonomy vs shame and doubt
3. initiative vs guilt
4. industry vs inferiority
5. identity vs role confusion
Do Infants have personality?
-they have basic emotions like happiness
-newborns smile when full, during REM sleep, and in response to gentle touches and sounds.
-by the end of the 1st mo, infants will smile in response to something that they find interesting
-At 6-10 wks their will be a voluntary response in response to social cues. This is known as the social smile.
At 2-3 mo, infants smile and coo at causation
-at 3-4 mo, laughter
Describe the development of anger and sadness in infants.
-Newborns express emotions of generalized distress.
-from 4-6 mo into the second year you start to get angry expression. This is highly corrrelated with cognitive and motor development.
Sadness is much less frequent than anger.
For infants, list the earliest developing emotions to the latest.
happiness (earliest)
anger (4-6 mo)
fear - 6 mo-12 mo
emotional contagion 7-10 mo?
Describe stranger anxiety. what types of things does it depend upon?
What effect does culture have on the development of stranger anx?
What function does stranger anx serve?
Which of the basic emotions is stranger anx associated with?
Stranger anxiety = fear of unfamiliar adults
-level of stranger anx depends on temperament, past experiences, and your current situation.
-culture modifies stranger anx.

-basic emotion = fear (which develops in second half of 1st yr)
Describe emotional contagion.
-emotional contagion = pick up on the emotions of others.
-infants can recognize other people's facial expresions as early as 7-10 mo.
How is emotional contagion different from social referencing?
-emotional contagion = pick up on the emotions of others.
-social referencing = rely on a trusted person's emotional reaction.
Describe the development of self-conscious emotions. what are some examples? When do they develop? What is unique about self conscious emotions?
-self conscious emotions include shame, embarasment, guilt, envy, pride.
-self conscious emotions emerge in the middle of the second yr
-infants need adult instruction about when to feel self conscious emotions (they need to be labeled).
Is temperament a trait or state word?
Temperament is a state word
temperament=stable individual differences in quality and intensity of emotional rxn, activity level, attention, and emotional self-regulation.
Define temperament.
temperament=stable individual differences in quality and intensity of emotional rxn, activity level, attention, and emotional self-regulation.
What was the main finding of the work of Thomas and Chess (1956)?
Temperament predicts psych adjustment.
Parenting practices affect Children's emotional styles
Describe the categories of children identified by Thomas and Chess
1. easy child - 40% of sample. Have regular routine, cheerful, adapt to new envio
2. difficult child- 10% of sample. Have irregular routine, slow to accept, new rxns are negative and intense
3. Slow to warm up child - 15% of sample. Inactive, mild rxns, negative mood, adapts slowly to new
4. 35% fell into no category or a blend of categories.
In what ways is difficult temperament a risk factor for psychopathology?
Difficult children :
1. haave intense reactions
2. don't like new situations
3. are irritable
Discuss infant attachment.
Attachment = intense emotional bond between caregiver and child
-several early caregiver behaviors influence attachment
-Are we bonded to caregiver because they provide food or contact comfort? Harlow's study suggests contact comfort.
Discuss Harlow's study of attachment.
Found that the contact comfort mom was more important in prompting attachment than the feeding mom.
What elements were of interest in Ainsworth's strange situation test?
1. the initial mother/child interaction
2. mother leaves infant alone
3. mother returns and greets child (what happens upon reunion)
What were findings associated with Ainsworth's strange situation test?
1. secure attachment = the majority of the sample was securely attached. Caregiver behavior associated w/ secure attachment was that the mom was accurate about and sympathetic to infant feeling.
-the mom was a comforting, dependable figure
-the infant that is securely attached explores the room when the mom is present
-when mom leaves they are upset, and they explore less while she is gone.
-they show pleasure when mom returns.
What were findings associated with anxious-avoidant attachment (in the ainsworth study)?
-Mom attends inconsistently to infant
-infant learns that adults are unpredictable and not always comforting
-infnants have difficulty tolerating being apart from mom
-infants are tenative at reunion, unsure. They may act coldly and avoid her.
What were the findings associated with anxious resistant attachment?
-Mothers seem uninterested in their infants and rebuff them.
-infant does not seek out caretaker
-Deny the importance of contact
-upon reunion, child remains close to mom but remains distressed despite her attempts to comfort.
What are the differences between anxious-avoidant attachement and anxious-resistant attachment?
in anx-avoid, moms attend inconsistently, whereas in anx resist, moms are uninterested & rebuff infant.

In anx avoid, infants are tenative upon reunion or may act coldly towrds mom,while in anx resistant, child remains close to mom but remains distressed even when she tries to comfort.
Describe disorganized attachment.
Kids appear dazed and confused. Disorganized attachment is the worst of the styles. It is associated with abusive behavior on the part of a parent.
In early childhood (3-6 yrs) in what 3 ways does a child's personality develop?
1. self concept in early childhood
2. categories of discipline
3. induction
(also, Barimund's parenting styles)
Discuss self concept in early childhood (3yrs-6 yrs).
Prior to 3 yrs of age, there are few cognitive organizations of memories. After infantile amnesia lifts, memories are laid down that form the basis of a person's life story.
Describe categories of discipline.
1. Power assertion = use of rewards and punishments to control children's behavior
2. Love withdrawl = expressing disaproval of the child rather than their behavior
Induction is associated with the development of personality in young children. What is induction?
Induction is verbal reasoning. We try to induce the child to think about the consequences of their actions.
High control and child centered (nuturing) is characteristic of which of Baumrid's parenting styles?
High control and parent centered is associated with which of Baumrid's parenting styles?
Low control and child centered is associated with which of Baumrid's parenting styles?
low control and parent centered
What "supplemented" version of Baumrind's parenting styles has the best outcomes?
Authoritative with induction (heavier on the induction as the child gets older)
Discuss what Sulloway (1996) has discovered about first born children.
-first born children may identify most closely with parents
-as they grow, they tend to be more conservative and to uphold society as it stands.
-In one study, 83 sibblings of famous scientists were examined. Both were on record regarding an innovative science theory.
First borns supported inovation 50% of itme, whereas laterborns supported innovation 85%of time.
What is the difference between sex and gender?
sex = biological. XX or XY
gender = a cultural and psychological construct; certain behaviors are seen as "masculine" or "feminine"
Sexual development diverges for male and female fetuses at ....
9 wks.
In terms of the "gendered world" what is unique after 5 yrs of age?
-Children play in same sex grps
-children are careful to choose toys and tlevision shows prefered by members of their sex.
What are the challenges of Middle childhood?
-Increasing focus on life tasks
-doing well in school
-making friends
-begins thinking about adult relationships and occupations
What type of interaction can help us identify friendship patterns?
"entry situation"
Compare how socially skilled children and not as socially skilled children in the "entry" situation.
Skilled kids will take on roles relevant to the dyad (You're superman. I'll be Spiderman), whereas kids that are not as socially skilled will bring up unrelated thing (my mom took me to restaurant)
Discuss development in adolescence.
Girl vs Boy changes. Seondary sex characteristics include portuberance of Adam's apple, deelopment of breasts.
Teens can start to feel as though all eyes are on them
What is the newer way of refering to masculinity vs feminitiy
Masculinity (instrumentality)
Femininty (expressiveness)
Define identity
-who one is
-beliefs that guide life
-group membership
Discuss identity crisis
-If something goes wrong in this phase, there will be an inability to assemble an identity.
-drifting will occur
-this can lead to a sense of psychological crisis
What are the two aspects of adult identity, as developed by Marcia?
Marcia believes that adult identity consists of :
1. commitment
2. exploration of identity
What is moratorium?
State of adult identity consisting of high exploration and low commitment
what is difusion?
State of adult identity consisting of low commitment and low exploration.
What is Achievement?
State of adult identity consisting of high commitment and high exploration. This is the best one.
What is foreclosure?
State of adult identity consisting of high commitment and low exploration
Discuss the stage conception of adult development.
-Longer periods of stability will be present, but there will still be some periods of change
-20s are stable, readjustment around 30 then more stability, readjustment again around 40
Discuss the general tasks of adulthood.
-Family (intimacy, generativity)
-Career (generativity)
-personal and social growth (wisdom)
Discuss erikson's 6th stage
Time for sharing oneself with another. Capacity to hold commitments with others leads to intimacy. Failure to establish commitments leads to feelings of isolation.
Discuss Clark and Hatfield study.
Subj were asked will you go on date/come to apt/go to bed?
come to apt-most men and a few women said yes
go to bed- most (70%) men said yes, 30% who didn't felt the need to justify their refusal, all women said no
discuss what men/women say they want in short term/long term partners
for short term, men rate physical attractiveness very highly
for short term, women mention phys attractiveness
for long term, men and women both want a sense of humor and nurturance, but for men physical attractiveness is still high on the list.
What are the 2 types of love. Which type of love preceeds the other?
Passionate love = difficult to ignore
companionate love = caring, nurturing, tender empathy and concern you have for someone with whom you are entertwined.
Passionate love preceeds companionate love.
what is assortive mating?
Monogomous people choose similar partners. Research evidence supports this.
what is completmentary selection?
opposites attract.
What is the diff between assortive mating and complementary selection?
assortive = Monogomous people choose similar partners. Research evidence supports this.
complementary = opposites attract
Discuss the elements of Holland's occupational hexagon.
realistic = hands on
investigative = likes figuring out how things work
artistic = innovative and creative (writers, actors)
enterprising = business people
conventional = recording and organizing
what is the greatest predictor of job satisfaction?
how much you like your job. your personality should match what you do.
Discuss erikson's stage 7 (middle adulthood)
-caring for others in family, friends, and work leads to a sense of contribution to later generations.
-stagnation comes from a sense of boredom and meaninglessness.
What are the broad factors associated with staying married?
1. lack of economic hardship
2. emotional calmness of couple, lack of impulsivity on the part of the husband
What are the 2 personality variables associated with marital stability?
1. lack of economic hardship
2. emotional calmness of couple, lack of impulsivity on the part of the husband
What are the specific factors associated with divorce (3)?
1. social potency. A parter in a distressed relationship with a socially potent person is likely to be more distressed. The high social potency makes that person more desireable to other partners.
2. Allienation = feeling left out
3. Absorption = completely lost in thought, absentminded
4. increased reactivity to stress (in husbands only)
In what way is the type a pattern linked to heart disease?
type A personality is associated with high competitveness, high need achievement, as well as hostility and impatience. It is the hostility that is associated with heart disease.
In what ways is personality linked to health?
-type A personality is associated with high competitveness, high need achievement, as well as hostility and impatience. It is the hostility that is associated with heart disease.
-depression may be linked to heart disease
-difficulty coping with stress often leads to poorer health.
Discuss Erikson's 8th stage?
Sucessful resolutions of all of the previous crises leads to integrity as well as the ability to see broad truths and advise those in earlier stages. this is self actualization. Despair arises from feelings of helplessness and the bitter sense that life has been incomplete