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107 Cards in this Set

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What is personality?
the distinctive patterns (including thoughts as well as “affects,” that is feelings and emotions and actions) that characterize each individual enduringly
What are the two stages of the empirical method?
1.Gathering data
2.Inductions of patterns and relationships with the data
What is involved in the scientific method?
1.Observation, gathering of data
2.Induction or generalisation
3.Development of explanatory theories
4.Deduction of hypotheses to test theories
5.Testing of hypotheses
6.Support or adjustment of theories.
What is a 'paradigm' according to Strati (2000)?
roots in Greek philosophy
denotes ‘model’,
‘project’
‘example and exemplary case’
‘analogy’
‘poetic metaphor’
‘example-based rhetorical device’
 
what is a paradigm according to Kuhn (1962)?
‘shared rules, assumptions and points of view as the source of coherence or research traditions’.
What assumptions does Burrell and Morgan (1979) argue paradigms have embedded within them?
1.Ontological assumptions
2.Epistemological assumptions
3.Assumptions regarding human nature
4.Assumptions about methodology
What are ontological assumptions?
Essence of phenomena under investigation.

i.e. does ‘reality’ exist, is it ‘out there’ or in our mind – is it objective or subjective.
What do those that believe in nominalism (relativists) believe?
There is not real structure to the world just artificial creations given convenient labels
What do those that believe in realism believe about the social world?
The social world is as concrete as the natural world and exists independently of individual’s appreciation.
What are epistemological assumptions?
1.Theory of knowledge.
2.What should we be looking for.
what do positivists believe?
We can explain and predict what happens in the social world by searching for regularities and causal relationships.
This follows the path of the natural scientists.
What do anti-positivists believe?
View that the social world can only be understood from the point of view of the individuals who are directly involved in the activities to be studied.
What are the two main types of theorists involved in the ontological debate?
Relativists (Nominalism)
Realists (Realism)
What are the two main types of theorists involved in the epistemological debate?
Positivists
Anti- positivists
What are the assumptions regarding human nature?
Are humans consistent/inconsistent?
Can we generalise their behaviour?
Do we have free will?
What are the two main theorists involved in the debate about free will?
Voluntarism and Determinism
What do those that believe in voluntarism believe?
Humans are completely autonomous and have free will.
what do those that believe in determinism believe?
Humans and their activities are completely determined by the situation or the environment they are in.
What are the two types of theorists involved with the methodological assumptions?
Ideographic and Nomothetic
What do ideographic thinkers believe?
You can understand the social world only by obtaining first hand knowledge of the subject under investigation.
So you must get close to the research subject.
What do nomothetic thinkers believe?
Based on systematic protocols and techniques.
Preoccupation is with the construction of scientific tests and the use of quantitative techniques
What are the characteristics of a positivist/normative paradigm?
1.Methodological determinists
2.Analysing variables
3.Measuring causal relationships within a theoretical framework
4.Operationalising
5.Hypothesis constructing
6.Statistical reduction
7.Pattern recognition
8.Make claims of objective truth
What are the characteristics of an interpretive paradigm?
1.organisation is a community that shares characteristics with other communities.
2.accept many of the normative views
3.there is truth, but should be perceived through actors
4.more of an exploratory approach
5.Phenomenology/phenomenography
6.usually qualitative methodologies
7.objective ontology
What are the characteristics of dialectic or postmodern studies?
1.Focus on the constructed nature of people and reality (subjective ontology)
2.Argue against grand narratives and large-scale theoretical systems (e.g. Marxism).
3.Fluid nature of contemporary world
4.Role of mass media & information technology
5.Doesn’t allow for action (only objective ontology allows for action)
6.Keen attention on social constructs and discourse
7.Findings can be used to check theory and assumptions from other research
what are the important methodological issues in individual differences?
1.What assumptions do the different perspectives/theories make about the nature of human difference (personality/intelligence)
2.How can one best measure and assess individual differences in human behaviour?
Naturalistic versus experimental conditions
3.What are the best units for conceptualising and studying people?
e.g. situations, physical responses, thoughts / cognitions, needs, conflicts, emotional states, inferred motives and dispositions
Bear in mind what a ‘construct’ is.
4.Consider different types of data available
qualitative, quantitative, self report, interview, observational or physiological
What are personality types?
Types = discrete categories of personality, where a person
is characterised as either one of a series of types.
(much early work focused on types – Carl Jung) eg. extravert or introvert
what is the main disadvantage of using personality types?
Appealing due to simplicity, but may not reflect the true
complexity of personality
What are personality traits?
continuous dimensions, where an individual can
be scored quantitatively on a variety of different
characteristics
How did Gordon Allport (1897-1967) contribute to trait theories?
- launched the field of individual differences
- how individual characteristics should be taken into account in psychology (e.g
memory, learning etc.)
- ‘trait structure’ determines behaviour
- set the scene for the study of ‘global traits’
How did Raymond B. Cattell contribute to trait theories?
- trait is a ‘mental structure’ inferred from behaviour
- common traits (possessed by all people)
- unique traits (different in each person)
How did Hans J. Eysenck contribute to trait theories?
- applied personality dimensions to abnormal psychology
- introversion/extroversion as a dimension rather than types (unlike Jung)
- added a second major dimension of personality
Emotional stability or neuroticism
What are the common features of trait theorists?
Traits always inferred from behaviour e.g. responses to
questionnaires (or actual behaviours) taken as indicators
of underlying traits
• Traits considered general and stable over time (therefore
attractive to biological/evolutionary theorists)
• Traits assumed to be relatively consistent across
situations
• Little attention paid to environmental factors, instead trait
psychologists seek internal, underlying traits
what are Prototypic states?
qualities that are brief in duration and dependent on
external situation (i.e. interested, angry, infatuated etc.)
What does psychometric methodology do?
– quantifies individual differences in traits
– uses statistical techniques to infer traits
– allows comparison of individuals on continuum quantifiable trait
measures
What does Taxonomy of Human Attributes mean?
– i.e. classification system to sort vast number of human attributes
into small set of fundamental dimensions on which most
individual differences can be described
– identify everyday trait terms and categorise them into
comprehensive groupings
What is the Psycholexical research strategy?
collation of the words that
are commonly used to describe traits in ourselves and other
people
what processes are involved in the taxonomy of human attributes?
1. Psycholexical research strategy = collation of the words that
are commonly used to describe traits in ourselves and other
people
2. Factor Analysis = Statistical procedure to determine how these
terms cluster together, and are therefore indicative of similar traits
How many underlying personality traits did Cattell argue there were?
16 personality factors
What were the underlying traits that Ensenck proposed?
3 major bipolar dimensions
 neuroticism / emotional stability
 extroversion / introversion
 psychoticism
What did Costa & McCrae (1987)propose?
Big 5 personality structure
• Recently, reasonable agreement on Big 5 bipolar scales based on
extensive factor analyses
How are the big five factors measured?
measured with personality inventory NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1997)
What supportive evidence is there for the big five?
– Replicated many times in different English-speaking countries
– Replicated in different languages
– Replicated in different cultures
– Stable in adults over time
what are the limitations of the big five?
– Does not provide an understanding of the processes underlying these
phenomena, i.e., WHY people differ in these ways (Block, 1995)
– Ratings may reflect stereotypes of the subjects rather than their actual
traits
– Ratings often rely on the judgments of the perceiver, and therefore may
reflect more about them than the target (e.g. animal personality
studies?)
What are the strengths of trait theories?
– Objective in measurement in quantification of personality tests
– Very useful for summarizing, describing, & classifying
– Detects stability over time
What are the weaknesses of trait theories?
– Determines theoretical concepts from data
• Largely descriptive
– Poor in predicting individuals behaviour (see part 2..)
– Poor at explaining WHY people do what they do
– Poor in consideration of environment & situations, experience,
and social learning
How can personality consistancy between situations be measured?
Type 1: Average overall levels of behaviour across
situations
– Useful for gross screening decisions (job selection?)
– Poor at predicting specific reactions
• Type 2: If….then…signatures.
– Highly individualised assessments
– Useful for predicting reactions, behaviours to situations
What is interactionalism in personality psychology?
Interactionism = the concept that an individual’s
experience and action cannot be understood as a result
of either personal or situational factors alone
– Instead as a dynamic interaction between aspects of personality
and situations
Basic principle of interactionism: depending on the situations in
which participants in a study find themselves, one would make
opposite predictions for their behaviour.
What are the characteristics of traditional trait theories?
Basic units: Inferred trait dispositions
Causes of behaviour: Generalised, stable dispositions
Behavioural manifestations
(personality):Direct indicators of traits
Favoured data: Test responses, self ratings
Observed responses used as: Direct signs of dispositions
Research focus: Measurement, taxonomy of traits
Approach to personality change:Not concerned with change
Role of situation:Acknowledged but of secondary interest
To what extent does personality reflect the genes
that a person is born with as opposed to influences
from the social and physical environment?
Not so much about specific genes
More about overall effects of gene and environment, on average
Main implication of recent research: Genes play a more important role
than previously thought
How is the extent to which genes and environment influence behaviour usually studied?
twin studies
Do identical twins have identical DNA?
yes
Do identical twins have identical fingerprints?
No
why are fingerprints not identical in identical twins?
Develop in response to
conditions in the womb,
movement etc
What did Loehlin & Nichols (1976)find in their study of 850 sets of twins?
MZ twins show more similarity than DZ twins, in areas of general abilities, special abilities, personality scales, ideals goals and interests.
High concordance for academic ability
BUT, personality is less related to genetics than other
characteristics
What did Loehlin (1992) find in their study of 24,000 sets of twins and the big five?
Identical twins raised together had highest concordance for extraversion and neuroticism. Identical twins reared apart had higher levels of concordance than fraternal twins raised together.
what did Waller & Shaver, (1994) find in their study of 890 adult twins and their attitudes towards relationships?
They differed significantly
How might a gene influence alcoholism?
1. Coding for an increase in risk taking behaviour
2. Coding for an increased stress response = more likely to relapse after
quitting
What did Sapolsky (1996) find about stress/depression and the brain?
Extreme long-term stress and/or depression can impair
the brain –
Shrinkage of the hippocampus
What were Tinbergen (1963) four whys? and how could they be used to explain chrissie the apes bared teeth display?
1. Proximate explanation -dylan just hit her she is scared, she is submissive/friendly.
2.Developmental explanation- Innate/ learned
3. phylogenetic explanation- most primates use this expression.
4. Evolutionary explanation- By showing her intentions are not aggressive, conflict will be avoided, and bond will strengthen. Chrissie benefits from living in a group (predator defence, access to mates etc)
How does Trivers (1971) explain altruism within an evolutionary perspective?
Reciprical altruism
How does Hamilton (1964) explain altruism within an evolutionary perspective?
kin selection
What did Egan and Angus (2004) find about the personality of people who had affairs?
– Men who admit having affairs were higher on
social dominance than men who did not
– Women showed opposite

– Social dom = negative neuroticism, positive
extraversion, agreeableness, conscientious
Differential strategies between men and women?
Socially dominant men are more desirable to women (access to
resources etc.)
What is the evolutionary function of the extraversion continuum according to Nettle (2005)?
545 adults, males extraverts had more extra-marital affairs, female extraverts
had more relationships

Extraverts had more mating sucess, however this was balanced by increased physical risk and less parenting effort.
What did Shackleford (2006) suggest about evolution, personality and recycling?
Our personalities have evolved to deal with immediate
problems
- Finding/keeping a mate
- Avoiding conflict
- Maintaining status etc.
Long term problems (like environment) are not immediate
BUT, we are equipped socially
- Increase social/community pressure to impact on recycling?
How did Hans Eysenck connect extraversion/ introversion do biological processes?
- Differ in physiological level of
arousal
- Generated by ascending reticular
activation system (ARAS) in
medulla/pons
- This system regulates arousal
processes
- Introverts = easily stimulated
- Extroverts = not easily stimulated

Eysenck (1983)
– No difference found in brain activity at rest
– BUT, introverts show greater response to low frequency tones
that extroverts (ie. In response to stimulation)
Thus, are introverts and extroverts suited to different tasks?
Introvert
Can maintain attention during
monotonous tasks?
Proofreading?
Extravert
Can maintain attention during
chaotic environments?
During emergencies?
What did Geen (1984) find about intoverts/extraverts and background noise?
Allowed extraverts and introverts to choose the level of
background noise during a task, both performed well under preferred
conditions
What is the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS)?
- Withdrawal from aversive stimuli/punishments
- More closely linked to introversion?
What is the Behavioural Activation System (BAS)?
Behavioural Activation System (BAS)
- Attraction to goals/incentives
- More closely linked to extroversion?
What did Zuckerman (1993) find out about brain and personality?
– Individual differences in monoamine oxidase
(MAO)
– Enzymes that brake down neurotransmitters
after transmission
– Hypothesised that ‘sensation seekers’ would
lack MAO, and so lack inhibition when
stimulated
– Moderate/low correlations…
How do antidepressents work?
- elevate mood
- increase serotonin levels
what are antipsychotics used for?
- managing schizophrenia etc.
How do tranquilisers work? what are they used for?
- Valium
- Act on limbic system
- Anxiety, panic disorder
Why must biological systems/processes be considered in
the study of personality?
1. Clear genetic component to personality (twin studies)
2. Brain activity varies between individuals who differ on
personality assessments (introverts/extroverts)
3. We have a history of evolution, and so robust
personality variants must have been subject to
selection, and offer some function
What is emotional intelligence according to Salovey and Mayer (1990)?
Term coined by Salovey & Mayer (1990)
1 understanding of own feelings
2 empathy - ability to relate to the feelings of others
3 regulation of emotion
Who popularised the term emotional intelligence?
Popularised by Goleman (1995) Emotional Intelligence popular media - redefining what it means to be smart
What are the applications of knowledge of 'emotional intelligence'?
applications -
to companies - who should be hired?
to couples - how to stay happy
to parents - how to have “good” children
to schools - how to teach children to be smart
What is emotional intelligence?
Many meanings and diverse definitions but usually only slight differences

The ability to perceive, understand and manage emotions

Involves delay gratification – ‘marshmallow test’

Social-emotional problem solving and competence

Often referred to as ‘EI’ or ‘EQ’

Major names: Salovey, Mayer and Goleman
How is EI and IQ related to personality?
EI not correlated with IQ: Not correlated with neuroticism

EQ related to personality dimensions
e.g. empathy and openness from Big 5

EQ related to self esteem, life satisfaction and relationship quality

IQ and EQ related to ability to manage moods

IQ related to ability to prevent moods biasing judgements, but EQ not

Australian uni - women higher EI than men
What does EQ predict?
Delay gratification in pre-shcoolers predicts childhood and adolescent levels of

Adjustment

Resilience

Confidence

Dependability
What processes underlie emotional intelligence?
Possible biological processes

Related to the CAUs of CAPS

Encoding

Expectancies

Beliefs

Goals and values

Skills and competencies
how do we measure emotional intelligence?
No agreement on best measure.

Psychometric properties of many early measures uncertain

Most widely used measure
Marshmallow test: measures delay gratification

Schutte et al. (1998) and Austen et al. (2003) self report measure of EI published in PAID

Mayer et al. currently developing Multi Factor Emotional Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS)
Objective measure (right and wrong answers)
psychometrics appear good

Multi Factor Emotional Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS)
What is a Multi Factor Emotional Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS)?
Described in: Ciarrochi, J.V., Chan, A., & Caputi, P (2000). A critical evaluation of the emotional intelligence construct. Personality & Individual Differences, 28, 539-561.

1. Perceiving emotions - identify emotions in faces, stories & music
2. Assimilating emotions into mental life - how feelingsjudgements
3. Understanding & reasoning about emotions
4. Managing & regulating emotions

Evidence for Emotional ‘g ‘- all subscales loaded onto 1 factor
overview the psychoanalysis personality theory?
Freud - interplay of the ID, EGO AND SUPEREGO
Create anxiety and tension, "causing" ego to act through DEFENSE MECHANISMS
Reduce anxiety.
Personality "determined" by EARLY CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCE AND INBORN DRIVES
Largely unconscious.
NEO-FREUDIANS - developing their own schools of thought
ALFRED ADLER - "striving for superiority“/perceived inferiority.
BIRTH ORDER
ERIKSON - eight PSYCHOSOCIAL CRISES
CARL JUNG - COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS (memories and capacities representative of experiences of earlier generations).
overview the behavioural approach to personality theory?
Born a "TABULA RASA“
Personality is DETERMINED by what we LEARN.
Learn from ENVIRONMENT
Behaviour predicted from our learning history. 
Not concerned with inner mental processes.
OBSERVABLE, MEASURABLE BEHAVIOR
PAVLOV - CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
SKINNER - OPERANT CONDITIONING  
Bandura - SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIST
MODELING AND IMITATION -people influence the environment just as the environment influences them.
overview the humanistic approach to personality theory?
Emphasise personal growth and the achievement of human potential.
"THIRD FORCE" - unique "SELF" that strives to "SELF-ACTUALIZE" it's inborn potential.
Focus on SELF-CONCEPT, human dignity and free choice.
Innate good nature.
CARL ROGERS - CLIENT-CENTERED THERAPY
NON-DIRECTIVE, PERSON-CENTERED relationship
explore values, feelings and goals in a climate of acceptance and positive regard  
ABRAHAM MASLOW - identified characteristic of self-actualisation.
overview the cognitive psychology view of personality theory?
Reasoning and mental processing of information.
Thinking is the key causal factor in personality.
ALBERT ELLIS - ABC theory, not A, the ACTIVATING EVENT that causes C, the CONSEQUENCES, but B, our BELIEF SYSTEM, our thoughts about the event.
Behaviour is a product of our INTERPRETATION of environmental stimuli
objective methods to study mental processing and decision-making.  
overview the gestalt theory of personality psychology?
PERCEPTION
Psychological phenomenon must be studied as whole.
We organize stimuli in patterns that give them "meaning."
Gestalt therapy - FREDERICK PERLS
Integrating largely disowned parts of the self into the "whole" person.
"play" an exaggerated role to discover one's full emotion,
"talk to" an empty chair that represents an unacceptable part of self to "reown" feelings or desires.
Focus on the "here-and-now"
If a researcher found a correlation of .77 between family income and GPA, the researcher has evidence suggesting that: 
a. Students with high GPAs tend to have low family income
b. Family income causes GPA
c. Students with high family incomes tend to have high GPAs
d. Knowledge of students’ family income does not help predict their GPAs
e. Students with low family incomes always have low GPAs
c. Students with high family incomes tend to have high GPAs
2. If two parts of the same questionnaire are not correlated with one another, then the measure lacks:
a. Temporal reliability
b. Concurrent validity
c. Interscorer agreement
d. Criterion validity
e. Internal consistency
e. Internal consistency
3. Construct validity is: 
a. The effort to determine exactly what a given test measures
b. The internal consistency of the subject’s responses
c. A measure of interjudge agreement
d. The link between reliability and long-term stability
e. A and D
a. The effort to determine exactly what a given test measures
4. In the same way that biologists classify living organisms into genera and species, __________ try to categorise human beings in the psychological domain. 
a. Ego theorists
b. Psychoanalytic theorists
c. Sociologists
d. Trait theorists
e. Object relations theorists
d. Trait theorists
5. Which of the following researchers have argued that dimensions such as the Big Five are “act trends” rather than underlying causes of behaviour?
a. Allport
b. Eysenck
c. Goldberg
d. Cattell
e. Buss and Craik
e. Buss and Craik
6. All of the following are the ego’s responsibilities EXCEPT:

a. To ensure the survival of the organism
b. To internalise parental rules
c. To test reality
d. To mediate between the demands of the id and the environment
e. To use secondary process thinking 
b. To internalise parental rules
7. When used by Freud, the term motivational determinism refers to the:
 
a. Inescapable nature of id instincts
b. View that all behaviour is motivated and significant
c. Psychological fate of all human beings
d. Programming of motives during the earliest stages of infancy that ultimately accounts for all subsequent behaviours
e. B and D 
e. B and D 
By what method are patients “cured” in psychoanalysis?
 
a. Free association
b. Reality testing
c. Self-examination
d. Working through repression
e. None of the above
d. Working through repression
The content of a phenomenological analysis of a person relies mostly on:
 
a. The person’s diagnosis of himself
b. Clinical inferences about the person
c. Results of psychometric tests
d. The person’s self-reported perceptions of himself and the world
e. Direct behavioural observation
d. The person’s self-reported perceptions of himself and the world
Kelly saw the _______ as an expert, and Freud saw the _______ as an expert.
 
a. Client . . . client
b. Therapist . . . therapist
c. Client . . . therapist
d. Therapists . . . client
e. None of the above
c. Client . . . therapist
Kelly was more interested in the __________ of the subject’s personal constructs than in their absolute truth.
 
a. Plausibility
b. Convenience
c. Creativity
d. Stability
e. Resilience
b. Convenience
12. In classical conditioning, the _________ elicits behaviour from the organism without prior learning.
 
a. Unconditioned Stimulus
b. Reinforcement
c. Conditioned Stimulus
d. Unconditioned Response
e. Cue
d. Unconditioned Response
In operant conditioning, __________ determines the likelihood that the organism will __________.
 
a. The organism’s sex . . . adapt effectively to new environmental conditions
b. The consequence of a particular operant response . . . perform it in the future
c. The age of the organism . . . stop performing a given behaviour
d. The organism itself . . . display approach or avoidance behaviours
e. Punishment . . . perform a particular response in the future 
b. The consequence of a particular operant response . . . perform it in the future
Organisms learn behaviours most quickly when they are _________, but _________ behaviours are the most resistant to extinction.
 
a. Innate . . . learned
b. Rewarded . . . innate
c. Shaped . . . conditioned
d. Partially reinforced . . . continuously reinforced
e. Continuously reinforced . . . partially reinforced
e. Continuously reinforced . . . partially reinforced
A fundamental assumption of the CAPS theory is:
 
a. Individuals differ in the ease with which internal mental representations become activated
b. Individuals behave relatively similarly across different situations
c. Affect is the most important person variable
d. Motivation is the most important person variable
e. People are not self-aware of their dynamic person variables
 
a. Individuals differ in the ease with which internal mental representations become activated
If you were asked to conduct an experiment to estimate the genetic versus environmental contribution for intelligence, which of the following would you compare?
 
a. Monozygotic twins raised together and monozygotic twins raised apart
b. Monozygotic twins raised together and dizygotic twins raised apart
c. Monozygotic twins raised apart and dizygotic twins raised together
d. Dizygotic twins raised together and dizygotic twins raised apart
e. Identical twins raised apart and fraternal twins raised together  
a. Monozygotic twins raised together and monozygotic twins raised apart
All of the following are true of heritability estimates EXCEPT:
 
a. They refer to the percentage of variation that is attributable to genetic factors
b. They do not indicate whether a particular characteristic can be changed or not
c. They provide an index of the degree to which a given characteristic is influenced by genes
d. They are limited to the specific population that is studied
e. All of the above are true 
c. They provide an index of the degree to which a given characteristic is influenced by genes
Because researchers have been able to identify its genetic biological underpinnings, __________ is now readily diagnosed and treated.
 
a. Schizophrenia
b. Hyperactivity
c. Down’s Syndrome
d. PKU
e. A and B 
e. A and B
In introverts the ascending reticular activation system is _______ compared to extraverts.
 
a. More active
b. More easily stimulated
c. Less active
d. Less easily stimulated
e. Equally active 
b. More easily stimulated
Five year old Jaime performs on an intelligence test at a level characteristic of an average 4 year old. Jaime’s mental age is:
 
a. 4
b. 4.5
c. 5
d. 80
e. 125
a. 4