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66 Cards in this Set

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personality
an indiviudal's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
psychoanalytic theory
frued's theory proposed that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality; unconscious region of mind, psychosexual stages. amd defense mechanisms for holding anxiety at bay
humanistic
focused on inner capactites for growth, self fulfillment
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
psychoanalysis
fruend's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorder by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
unconscious
accordin to tfreud, a reservoir of mothly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. according to contemporary psychologists, info processing of which we are unaware
preconscious area
temporarily stores thoughts from unconsicous from which we can retrieve them into conscious awareness
repress
forcibly block from our consciousness because they are too unsettling to acknowldege
manifest content
the remembered content of dreams
latent content
censored expression of the dreamer's unconsiocus wishes
id
contains a respervoir of unconscious psychic enerty that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drive. operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
ego
largely conscious, executive part of the personality that mediates amond the demands of the id, superego, and reality. operates on the reality principle satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
superego
4-5 begins. the part of the personality that represents internalized ideals and provdes standards for judgment and future aspiration
psychosexual stages
childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital) during which the id's pleasure seeking energies focus on distict erogenous zones
phallic stage
genital stimulation-unconsiocu sexual desires for their mother and jealousy and hatred for their father, who they consider rival
oedipus complex
boys sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealous and hatred for the rival father
electra complex
girls version of oediups complex
indentification process
children incorporate their parent's values into their developing superegos
gender identity
sense of male or female
object relations theorists
early childhood relations w parent influcne our developing identity, personaliyt, frailties
fization
a lingering focus on ppleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
defense mechanism
in psychanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsiocusly distorting reality
repression
in psychoanalytic thoery, the basic defense mechanism that banished anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
regression
psychoanalytic defence mechanism in which an indiviual faces w/ anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defense mechaisn by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. thus, people may express feelings that are opposite of thier anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
projection
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise thairy own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
rationalization
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanation in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
displacement
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threateneing object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
neo-freudians
pioneering psychoanalysts and physicians who formed an inner circle around freud
inferiority compex
triggers love and security
collective unconscious
carl jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species
projective tests
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
thematic apperception test (TAT)
a projective test in which pepole express their inner feelings and interests thorugh stores they make up about ambiguous scenes
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Herman Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
implicit learning
nonconscoius learning
terror-management thoery
proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protecton against a deeply rooted fear
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
humanistic psychologists
focused on the ways healthy people strive for self-determination and self-realization- studied people thorugh their own self-reported experiences and feelings
third-force perspective
abraham maslow and carl rogers-emphasized human potentioal and seeing the world through the person's eyes
self actualization
according to maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
genuine
by being open w/ our feelings, dropping facades, and being transparetnt and self-disclosing
acceptiong/ unconditional positive regard
an attitude of total acceptabce toward another person
empathic
sharing and mirroring our feelings and reflecting our meanings
self concept
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, who am i?
trait
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel adn act. as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
the myers-briggs type indicatior
labels people as feeling or thinking typle- carl jung
eysenck personality questionnaire
extraverts seeks stimulaiton because normal brain arousal is relatively low/ frontal lobe area in volved in behavior inhibition s less active in extraverts than in introverts
termperament
emotial reactvity
personality invertories
a questionaire often w/ a true false or agree disagree items on which people respond to items desigend to gauge a wide range of feelings and behvaiors; used to assess personality traits
minnesota multiphasic personality inventory
most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. originally developed to identify emotional disorders
empirically derived
a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discrimiate between groups
the big 5
concientiousness, agreeablesness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion
social cognitive perspective
bandura- views behavior as influence by the interaction between persons (and their thinking ) and their social context
reciprocal determinism
the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
personal control
oursense of controlling our envirmonment rather than feelings helpless
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
internal locus of control
the perception that one controls one's own fate
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive reignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repearted aversive events
attributional style
attribute poor performance to the lack of ability
spotlight effect
overestimative others' noticing and evaluation our appearancle, performance, and blunders
self reference phenomenon
better recall words that relate to onself
high self-esteem
one's feelings of high or low self worth
self serving bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
old self
people more critical of their distant past selves than of their cuurent selves, even when they have not changed
defense self esteem
fragile, focuses on sustaining itself, which makes failures and criticism feel treatening. correlates w/ anitsocial and aggressive behavior
secure self esteem
less fragile, becuase it is less contingent on external evaluations. the feel accepted for who we are, and not for ourlooks, wealth, or acclain, relieves pressures to succeed and enables us to focus beyond ourselves