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116 Cards in this Set

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Psychological Health
aka: Emotional wellness
Broadly based concept. Describes cognitive functioning, which means the way people think and behave in conjunction with their emotions.
Cognitive Functioning in Psychological Health
the way people...
1. Express Emotions
2. Coping with stress
3. Dealing with adversity/ success
4. Adapting to Changes
Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People
*they accept themselves and others
*they like themselves
*Give and recieve care, love, and support
*Accept life's disappointments
*Accept their mistakes
*Express full range of emotions (+ and -)
Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People
(cont.)
*Feel empathy and Concern for others
*Take care of themselves
*Can function both independently
*Generally trusts others
*Involve exercise, sound nutritional habits, and sleep into lifestyles
*Establish goals
Taking a Proactive Approach toward Life
PROMOTES BETTER CONTROL OF ONE'S OVERALL LIFE.
*Construct mental pictures
*accept these perceptions
*test these perceptions (new experiences)
*Modify these experiences/outcomes (reframe)
Clinical Depression
a psychological disorder in which individuals experience a lack of motivation, decreased energy level, fatigue, social withdrawal, sleep disturbance, disturbance in appetite, feelings of worthlessness and despair.
SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder)
type of depression affected by time of year. Mainly in winter due to decreased time spent in sun.
Bi Polar Disorder
Manic Depression. Characterized by extreme mood swings. Periods of depression followed by euphoria
Postpartum Depression
Severe type. known as "baby Blues". occurs in 1 out of 8 women after childbirth. Fatigue, frequent crying, emotional withdrawal, and anxiety.
Types of Depression
1. Clinical Depression
2. SAD
3. Bi-Polar disorder
4. Postpartum depression
Psychological Health
aka: Emotional wellness
Broadly based concept. Describes cognitive functioning, which means the way people think and behave in conjunction with their emotions.
Cognitive Functioning in Psychological Health
the way people...
1. Express Emotions
2. Coping with stress
3. Dealing with adversity/ success
4. Adapting to Changes
Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People
*they accept themselves and others
*they like themselves
*Give and recieve care, love, and support
*Accept life's disappointments
*Accept their mistakes
*Express full range of emotions (+ and -)
Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People
(cont.)
*Feel empathy and Concern for others
*Take care of themselves
*Can function both independently
*Generally trusts others
*Involve exercise, sound nutritional habits, and sleep into lifestyles
*Establish goals
Taking a Proactive Approach toward Life
PROMOTES BETTER CONTROL OF ONE'S OVERALL LIFE.
*Construct mental pictures
*accept these perceptions
*test these perceptions (new experiences)
*Modify these experiences/outcomes (reframe)
Clinical Depression
a psychological disorder in which individuals experience a lack of motivation, decreased energy level, fatigue, social withdrawal, sleep disturbance, disturbance in appetite, feelings of worthlessness and despair.
SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder)
type of depression affected by time of year. Mainly in winter due to decreased time spent in sun.
Bi Polar Disorder
Manic Depression. Characterized by extreme mood swings. Periods of depression followed by euphoria
Postpartum Depression
Severe type. known as "baby Blues". occurs in 1 out of 8 women after childbirth. Fatigue, frequent crying, emotional withdrawal, and anxiety.
Types of Depression
1. Clinical Depression
2. SAD
3. Bi-Polar disorder
4. Postpartum depression
Why do people with bi-polar disorder refuse to take medicine sometimes?
Because they like the manic (euphoric) stage
*LITHIUM-mood stabilizer for this disease
Do's and Dont's of suicide intervention
*Remain Calm
*Offer Support and asistance
*Encourage Problem Solving
*Emphasize the temporary nature of the problem
*Seek Help
*Stay with the person
Do's and Dont's of suicide intervention (cont.)
*Talk about it
*DON"T be judgemental
*Assume they are serious
*DONT argue
*Tell someone!!
Anxiety Disorders
VERY HARD TO TREAT
*intense sometimes people think they are going to die
*Long lasting
Types of Anxiety Disorders
*GAD (generalized anxiety disorder)
*phobias
*panic disorder
*OCD (obsessive Compulsive Disorder)
*Post-traumatic stress disorder
Panic Disorder
anxiety disorder characterized by panic attack in which the individual experiences severe physical symptoms. Episodes occur out of the blue and can last a few minutes or hours.
*Most ppl feel like they are going to die
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Anxiety disorder. consists of obsessions (ex. Germs) and compulsions (ex. washong hands constantly)
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Anxiety disorder that sometimes develops following exposure to threat of death or serious injury. Symptoms: distressing thought or nightmares about the event, emotional numbness, feelings of detatchment, and sleep disturbances
Schizophrenia
One of the most severe mental disorder. Distortions in ones thought processes, emotions, perceptions and behavior.
*delusions
*hallucinations
*disorganized speech
*catatonic behavior
*dysfunction in everyday routines
Management of Psychological disorders
Therapists
Psychiatrists
Psychologists
licensed counselors
licensed social worker
Psychotherapy
Psychiatrists
heathcare provider with a medical degree. Prescribe drugs and perform medical procedures.
Psychologists
Mental Health care provider whose education includes a doctorate in the feild of counselingor clinical psychology
Why do insurance companies pay for therapy?
??
Stress
physiological and emotional responses to a significant or unexpected chane or disruption in ones life.
General Adaption Syndrome
*HANS SEYLE 1975*
3 stages
*alarm (fight or flight)
*resistance (homeostasis)
*exhaustion (illness, emotional/psycho. breakdown)
Chronic Stress
Constantly stressing about something (ex. school) breaks down the body.
College Student Stress
*TEST ANXIETY
*SPEECH ANXIETY
*homesickness
*Relationship problems
*balancing responsibilities
*learning ability
*math anxiety
Test Anxiety
Even though you studied, once you start it your mind goes blank and the harder you try to think the more nervous you become. 1/5 students suffer.
Speech Anxiety
Fear of public speaking. What to do about it?
*Volunteer to go first
*PRACTICE!
*Engage in + visualization
Hormones released during stress
adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
Cortisol
Physical aspects of Stress Management
Nutrition
Exercise
Sleep
circadian rhythms (biological clock)
Social aspects of Stress Management
Make time to have fun
Laughter
Human contact through social connections
Pets
Enviromental aspects of Stress Management
Reduce noise levels
Amount/Type of light
Meaningful and Challenging experiences
Aesthetic quality of home
color
plants
photos
smell
Psychological aspects of Stress Management
Meditation and hypnosis
Cognitive self-talk
Progressive muscle relaxation
Relaxation/Deep Breathing
Biofeedback
Guided imagery visualization techniques
Stress Inoculation
Progressive muscle relaxation
Jacobson
Tensing and releasing major muscle groups in sequence from head to toe in order to recieve total relaxation
Relaxation/Deep Breathing
Benson
ensures you do not remain in stress mode too long. Breathe deeply count to 4 exhale count to 4 in comfy position
Biofeedback
people can alter their bodies responses, brain activty, blood pressure, muscle tension, and heart rate
Guided imagery visualization techniques
Emil Coue
Form an image of a peaceful place and see yourself accomplishing a task.
Benefits of Fitness
*Increased longevity
*Increased capillary network of the body
*Decreased heart disease and cancer
*Prevent hypertension and Type 2 diabetes
*Improved blood lipid profile (cholesterol)
Benefits of Fitness (cont)
*Strengthens lungs
*Controls weight
*Greater ability to perform activities
*Wards off infections
*Improves efficiency of body systems
Physical Fitness
attributes that allow the ability to perform physical activity
Physical Activity
bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle groups
Exercise
Subcategory of physical activity. Structured, repetitive, and purposed toward maintaining or improving fitness levels
Components of Physical Fitness
*Cardiorespiratory endurance
*Muscular Strength
*Muscular endurance
*Flexibility
*Body Composition
Aerobic
energy production (using oxygen)
Anaerobic
energy production not using oxygen (oxygen debt)
Sports injuries prevention
5 general principles
*start at a low level and progress gradually
*if you stop for a while do not restart at the past level
*listen to your body
*follow rehabilitation instructions
*develop a preventive approach
7 types of nutrients
Carbohydrates
Fats
Protein
Vitamin
Minerals
Water
Fiber
Carbohydrates
various combinations of sugar units (saccharides)
Fats
lipid, fatty acid. Concentrated form of energy and keep us from feeling hungry
Protein
manufactored in every cell and composed of chains of amino acids. 9 complete amino acids and 11 incomplete
Vitamins
organic compounds required in small amounts for growth, reproduction, and maintenance of health. 2 types: water(BC) and fat soluble (ADEK)
Minerals
Stuctural elements. Regulate many body processes
Water
may be the most essential nutrient. Die in less than a week without it. More than half the body's weight is water.
Fiber
Not considered a nutrient, but it is an important component of sound nutrition. Insoluble and soluble
brain food
glucose
Trans-fats
do no break down easily. Altered form of unsaturated fat.
hypervitaminosis
overdose on vitamins. Toxic. use caution when taking supplements. Fat soluble vitamins can overdose
hidden sources of bad fat
tropical oils
coconut oils
fast food
Dietary Supplements
Americans spent over 17 billion on these. OTC products. Not supposed to replace meals. FDA approved. Can not cure or treat disease
Food Allergies
Reaction by immune system based on food consumed. Can be mistaken for food intolerance (enzyme deficiency)
Common food allergies
PEANUTS, milk, soy products, SHELLFISH and WHEAT
Food Poisoning
Consumption of contaminated food products. Symptoms mimic flu. Develops within 1-6 hours. Normally bacterial exposure.
Vegetarian Food Concept
Relies on plant sources for most of the nutrients needed
*ovo
*lacto
ovo
use of eggs to supplement protein needs
lacto
use of milk products to supplement protein needs
semi-vegetarian
great reduction of meat products, but still consumes some meat products
Vegan
removal of milk, eggs, and animal products from diet. This requires high level of nutritional understanding. Complementary foods are needed to maintain protein and vitamin b12 intake
Body Image
perceptions on how our body appears
Overweight
persons fat exceeds desirable weight by 1%-19%
Desirable weight
weight deemed appropriate for people. changes with height and body frame.
Obesity
excessive body fat percentage. 20% or more over desired weight
Determining Proper weight/body
composition
*height/weight table (sometimes not desirable)
*BMI (body mass index)
*Electrical Impedence
*BOD POD
*Skinfold measurements
*Hydrostatic weighing
*appearance (not accurate)
Electrical Impedence
body's resistance to weak electric flow. determines body fat ratio
BOD POD
Body Composition System
egg shaped chamber with computerized pressure sensors
Hydrostatic weighing
compare underwater body weight to weight out of water. determines relative amounts of fat and lean that make up body fat
Causes of obesity
*Genetics
*Physiological factors(height)
*Hormonal factors (menstrual)
*Metabolic factors (basal metabolic rate)
*Social factors (family)
*psychological factors (mood)
*Cultural factors
*Enviromental factors (if food is around)
*Inactivity
*Dietary practices
basal metabolic rate
How many calories your body burns in order to do tasks
How social factors affect obesity
Sometimes in families especially in the south eating is a social thing! and some families overeat together
Hypercellular obesity
fat cells replicate. they make more fat cells. Happens when babies are overfed. HARD TO LOSE WEIGHT
Hypertrophic Diabetes
Fat cells enlarge. associated with type 2 diabetes
Weight Management Techniques
-WALKING
-Change Diet
-Portion control(same food just smaller servings)
-Fad diet (sometimes)
-low calorie food and controlled servings
-controlled fasting (not recommended unless severely obese)
-commercial weight reduction programs (jenny craig)
Hunger and Satiety Influencing Products
products to try and make you feel full
Non Hunger Drugs
Eat before a meal and it swells up with water and makes you feel full.
-Side effects
Pulmonary death
visual problems
-Types
Prozac
Aderol
Behavior Change Strategies
Diet and Exercise
Lifestyle support (the ppl you hang out with)
Problem solving (eating bc you are bored)
Anorexia Nervosa
Extremely dangerous
Occur more in women
Stop eating all together
Bulimia Nervosa
Eat a lot and then throw up
Dont really lose weight just maintain the same weight
Binge eating disorder
Eat a lot of food at one time
Chewing spitting out food syndrome
What it sounds like
Night Eating Syndrome
Get up from bed and go eat. Sometimes they dont even realize they are doing it
Treating eating disorders
Considered multidimensional
---diet
---group therapy
---hospitilization
Primary
Targets people who have never used the drugs before (DARE)
Secondary
People who have already experimented (drug testing)
Tertiary
dependent users, addicts (rehab)
3 aspects of addictive behavior
exposure
compulsion
loss of control
exposure
introduced the drug that is considered pleasurable
compulsion
time, energy, and money are spent to pursue the behavior (normal behavior has already degenerated)
Loss of Control
addicted ppl lose the ability to control their behavior and results in addiction to more than one drug or behavior
Codependence
people who are close to the addict often focus all their time worrying about the addict and lose their own identities
dependence
the need to continue a drug for psychological or physiological reasons
withdrawal
an uncomfortable, perhaps toxic response of the body as it attempts to maintain homeostasis in the absence of a drug
cross-tolerance
transfer tolerance from one drug to another with in the same category
tolerance
an aquired reaction to a drug in which the continued intake of the same dose has diminishing effects
drug
substance other than food that aters structure or function in a living organism
Dynamics of Drug abuse
Individual factors (genetics)
Enviromental Factors (family, peers)
Societal Factors (culture, ads)
6 classifications of psychoactive drugs
Stimulants
Depressants
Hallucinogens
Cannabis
Narcotic
Inhalants