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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Persian Empire
The Persians were warriors and nomads.
Cyrus the Great united all of Persia and built a large empire: Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Syria, and Canaan. He also treated his subjects well.
Darius reorganized the govt. and divided the empire into 20 satrapies (equivalent of U.S. states), each ruled by a satrap. The satrap was like a governer. Military was made up of full-time, paid soldiers, and immortals protected the king.
Persian War
Failed Greek rebellion in Asia Minor vs. Persians. King Darius decided to stop Greeks from interfering in the Persian Empire. In the battle of Marathon (410 B.C.) the Persians had 20,000 people and the Athenians had 20,000. The Persians waited for the Athenians and when they didn't come, the Persians got back on the boat (calvary loaded first). That's when the Athenians attacked, and won.
Xerxes-king of Persia
He vowed a new invasion of Greece with 180,000 soldiers. Athens and Sparta joined forces to defend against Xerxes's attack. In the battle of Thermopylae, the Greeks lost, but gave them selves time to assemble 200 ships at Athens. In the battle of Salamis, the Greeks had smaller, faster ships and destroyed most of the Persian fleet. However, the Persians burned Athens.
In the battle of Plataea, the Greeks easily defeated the Persians. This was the turning point of the war, when the Persian Empire fell. They were weekened by war, and the rulers taxed the people and spent lavishly.
Peloponnesian War
Sparta demanded that Athens frees all city-state under their control. Greece refused. In 431 B.C., the war began. In the second year of the war, Sparta invaded Athenian countryside, so all the Athenians went inside the city's walls. 1/4 of Athenians died in a plague. The war went on for 26 more years, and the Persians finally helped the Spartans and gave them funds to make a better navy. The Spartan navy destroyed the Athenian Navy and forced Athens to tear down the walls around the city.
A form of government ruled by a king or queen, the people had little say in govt. This govt. declined in ancient greece because a fight broke out amongst Greece. Myceneans invaded Greece and the final moarchies were overthrown.
Ruling power was in hands of a few rulers. Some oligarchies were harsh on people, while other left their city hungry. By 400 B.C., hoplites(hired warriors) had overthrown all but one oligarchy.
One tyrant rules, but can take suggestions. The tyrant seizes control. Former military leaders promised to make changes the people wanted. In many cases, tyrants became harsh and greedy. A combination of Spartans and Athenians demanded that the tyrants leave. They installed a democracy.
People vote to decide on who rules the govt. In 500 B.C. the people wanted more say in govt. The people decided who ruled in Greece.
A body of land with water on three sides.
The early Greek city-state, made up of a city and surrounding countryside and run like an independent country.
In early Greek city-states, an open area that served as both a market and meeting place.
A person who takes power by force and rules with total authority.
A government in which a small group of people hold power.
A government in which all citizens share in which all citizens share in running the govt.